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22 Cards in this Set

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sensitivity

true positive = tp/(tp+fn)

specificity

true-negative = tn/(tn+fp)

ppv

tp/(tp+fp)

npv

tn/(fn+tn)

case-control

OR - w/ vs. w/o DISEASE and look at exposures

cohort

RR - w/ vs. w/o EXPOSURES and look at disease

cross-sectional

disease prevalence

OR

ad/bc

RR

a/(a+b) / c/(c+d)

NNT

1/ARR

AR

a/(a+b) - c/(c+d)

NNH

1/AR

positive skew

tail to right, mean>median>mode

negative skew

tail to left, mode>median>mean

type 1 error

false-positive

type 2

false negative

power

1-beta

surrogate priority

spouse, adult children, parents, adult siblings, other

selection bias

non-random assignment, particularly health, volunteer,

measurement, hawthorne effect

distorted gathering of info, group behaves differently when studied

procedure bias

different treatment of groups - eg more time in specialized units

lead-time

early detection DNE early survival