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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What Passes posteriorly through the rectal hiatus in the pelvic diaphragm?

Pelvic diaphragm helps to maintain fecal continence and facilitate defecation
What contains pectinate line and external anal sphincter?
Anal canal
What divides the upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of the anal canal?
Pectinate line
What is the tube that conducts urine from the renal pelvis of the kidney to the urinary bladder?
#Stones commonly lodge at sites where the ureter is constricted:

What 3 locations?
-At the ureteric junction of the renal pelvis
-As the ureter crosses over the pelvic inlet
-Where the ureter enters into the urinary bladder
#Collateral circulation to the ureters is provided by branches from several arteries:

What 3 arteries and from where do they branch?
-Internal Iliac
-Common Iliac
-Uterine artery (females only)

Direct branches from abdominal aorta
What is structure?
-Located in the true pelvis when empty
-Expands into the false pelvis when full
-Ureters enter on posterior aspect
Urinary Bladder
#Urinary Bladder:

What muscle?
-Smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder
-Remains relaxed to allow the bladder to store urine
-Contracts during urination
Detrusor Muscle
#Urinary Bladder:

What is the name of this special region?
-Triangular region on the posterior aspect of the interal bladder formed by the two uretral orifices and the internal urethral orifice
What extends from the internal urethral orifice in the urinary bladder to the genitals?
#Describe the Interal urethral sphincter
-Located at the inferior end of the urinary bladder and the proximal end of the urethra
-Continuation of the detrusor muscle (smooth muscle)
-Under autonomic control
-Sympathetic signalling maintains tonic contraction
-Parasympathetic signaling induces relaxation
-Primary muscle for prohibiting release of urine from the bladder
-Less well defined in females
-Functions to prevent reflux of semen into the male bladder during ejaculation
What are 4 regions of male urethra?
What are the 2 structures of the prostatic urethra?
-Seminal colliculus
-Prostatic utricle
What is the structure?

-Overlies the urethral crest
-Location of drainage of the prostate glands into the prostatic urethra
# Seminal colliculus
What is the structure?

-Indentation in the urethra at the apex of the urethral crest, overlying the seminal colliculus
-Embryologic remnant, homologue of the female uterus and vagina
-Landmark for where the ejaculatory duct enters the prostatic urethra
# Prostatic Utricle
What urethral region?

-Seminal colliculus
-Prostatic utricle
Prostatic Urethra
#What urethral region?

-Inferior to the prostate, in the deep perineal pouch
-Bulbourethral glands are found posterior to this region, but drain into the penile urethra
#What urethral region?

-Runs along the length of the penis
-Bulbourethral gland openings in proximal aspect
Penile (Spongy) Urethra
What structure?

-Carries sperm from the testis to the epididymis
-12-20 of these open individually into the epididymis
Efferent ducts
What structure?

-Single highly coiled tube, ~15 cm coiled
-Located along the posterior aspect of each testis
-Modifies the surface of the sperm and prepares them to become motile once released into the female reproductive tract
-Stores sperm prior to ejaculation
What structure?

-Transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts
-Part of the spermatic cord
-Located along the rear of the scrotum
Ductus (vas) deferens
#What procedure?

-Procedure involving severing of the vas deferens for the purpose of sterilization
-Performed as a minor outpatient surgery due to ease of access of the vas deferens through the posterior of the scrotum
What structure?

-Formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle, within the prostate gland.
-Pass through the prostate and open into the urethra at the seminal colliculus
Ejaculatory Duct
What structure?

-Paired simple tubular glands located posteroinferior to the urinary bladder, superolateral to the prostate gland
-Contribute ~70% of the fluid component of semen
Seminal Vesicles
What structure?

-30-50 tubuloalveolar glands that drain independently into the prostatic urethra
-Contributes 30%-75% of the fluid component of semen
What structure?

-Compound tubuloalveolar glands located posteriolateral to the membranous urethra
-Drain into the penile urethra
-Produce pre-ejaculate fluid to flush out residual urine or foreign matter in the urethra prior to ejaculation
Bulbourethral Gland
What structure?

-Pouch located in the peritoneum between the rectum and the bladder
-Formed by a folding of the peritoneum, which overlies the superior aspect of bladder and the anterosuperior aspect of the rectum
Rectovesical pouch
Regions within the prostate:

Surrounds the ejaculatory ducts
Central zone
Regions within the prostate:

-Surrounds the proximal prostatic urethra
-Site of benign prostatic hyperplasia
Transition zone
Regions within the prostate:

-Main glands located here
-Site of prostate carcinoma
-Subcapsular portion of the posterior aspect of the prostate
-Surrounds the distal urethra
Peripheral zone
Name the cancer:

-Second most frequent cancer in males, sixth leading cause of cancer death in males
-Worldwide incidence of ~250,000
-Incidence increases >65 yrs
-Primary site is within the peripheral zone of the prostate
-Due to posterior location of this zone, a growth here can be readily palpated on digital rectal exam
Prostate cancer (carcinoma)
Name the cancer:

-Hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells
-Occurs primarily in transition zone of prostate
-Can affect storage and voiding of urine due to constriction of the prostatic urethra
-Incidence is >75% in males by age 80
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
What structure?

Location of oocyte maturation
What structure?

-Located posterior and superior to the urinary bladder, superior to the vagina
-Hint: has body, fundus, axes
What region of uterus?

Lateral-inferior pole
What region of uterus?

Superior pole
What structure?

-Transport oocytes from the ovary to the uterus
Uterine tube (fallopian tube)
What structure within fallopian tubes?

Segment located most proximal to the ovary
What structure within fallopian tubes?

-Fringe of tissue associated with the infundibulum
-Activated by hormones during ovulation to swell and come into contact with the ovary, sweeping the oocyte released during ovulation into the uterine tube
What structure?

Contains Internal Os and External Os
What structure of Uterus?

Uterine surface of the opening to the uterus
Internal Os
What structure of Uterus?

Vaginal surface of the opening to the uterus
External Os
What structure contains Fornices?
What structure?

Deepest portions of the vagina, extending into recesses along the outer border of the vaginal surface of the cervix
Vaginal fornices
#What cancer?

-Most common reproductive cancer in females
8th most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, 5th leading cause of cancer related death in women
Ovarian cancer
#Name some reproductive cancers in females
Uterine Cancer
Cervical Cancer
Vaginal Cancer
Vulval Cancer
Tubal cancers (very rare)
#What procedure?

-Surgical bifurcation of the perineal body in the female during labor and delivery, performed as prophylaxis against soft-tissue trauma during childbirth
Peritoneum in Female:
What structure?

-Created by a folding of the peritoneum between the urinary bladder and the anterior wall of the uterus
Vesicouterine pouch
Peritoneum in Female:
What structure?

-Created by a folding of the peritoneum between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum
Rectouterine pouch
Peritoneum in Female:
What structure?

-Fold of the peritoneum connecting the sides of the uterus to the walls of the pelvis
Broad ligament
Peritoneum in Female:
What division of broad ligament?

-Main lateral extensions to the body wall
Peritoneum in Female:
What division of broad ligament?

-Attached to the ovaries
Peritoneum in Female:
What division of broad ligament?

-Attached to the utererine tubes
Peritoneum in Female:
What structure?

-Extends from the lateral aspects of the uterus out to the lateral body wall
-Enters the deep inguinal ring lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels
Round ligament of uterus
Peritoneum in Female:

-Runs from the ovary to the body wall
-Contains the ovarian artery and vein
Suspensory Ligament of the Ovary