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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
o Stages of perception
o Stage one: stimulation
• Selective attention- we choose to what we are paying attention to.
• Selective exposure- we tend to want to expose ourselves to things that we are already used too. If we are not careful we will choose to expose ourselves to things we already agree with.
o Stage 2: organization
• Rules: proximity, similarity/contrast
• Schemata: mental templates
• Scripts: events and sequences
o Stage 3: interpretation-evaluation
• Subjective: experiences, needs, wants, values, expectations, physical and emotional state, gender and beliefs.
• Making sense of the stimuli
o Stage 4: Memory
• Everything we put into memory its already been analyzes and summarizes what happens
• Cognitive tags- something that when you store it you tagged it with something that might trigger that thought.
o Stage 5: Recall
• Reproduce vs. Reconstruct
Barriers to Listing
- Distractions: Physical and mental
- Biases and prejudices
- lack of appropriate focus
- premature judgement
Styles of effective listening:
- Empathetic and objective listening
- Nonjudgmental and critical listening
- surface and depth listening
- polite and impolite listening
- active and inactive listening
Interpersonal conflict
a conflict or disagreement between two persons
Group task roles
help the group focus on achieving its goals. Effective group members serve several roles. some people lock into a few specific roles, but this single focus is usually counterproductive-- it is better for the roles to be spread more evenly among the members and for the roles to be alternated frequently.
Group building roles
No group can be task oriented at all times. Group members have varied interpersonal relationships, and these need to be nourished if the group is to function effectively. Group members need to be satisfied if they are to be productive. Group building and maintenance roles serve these relationship needs.
Individual roles
Are counterproductive and hinder the group from achieving its goal and are individual rather than group oriented. Such roles, often termed dysfunctional, hinder the group's effectiveness in terms of both productivity and personal satisfaction.
Principles of verbal messages
- Message meanings are in people
- messages are denotative and connotative
- message meanings vary in politeness
- messages vary in assertiveness
- messages are influenced by culture and gender
Interpersonal conflict
a disagreement between or among connected individuals (e.g close friends lovers family members) who perceive their goals as incompatible.
four stages of conflict
- goals to be per sued
- the allocation of resources
- decisions to be made
- behavior that are considered appropriate or desire by one person that is found inappropriate by another.
Principles of interpersonal conflict
1. conflict can center on content or relationship issues
2. conflict can be positive or negative
3. conflict is influenced by culture or gender
4. conflict styles have consequences
Content conflict
Content conflict centers on objects events and persons that are usually but not always external to the parties involved in the conflict
relationship conflict
relationship conflict equally numerous and center on the nature and meaning of the relationship. Examples include clashes that arise when a younger brother refuses to obey the older brother.
negative aspects of conflict
often leads to increased negative regard for the opponent.
positive aspects of conflict
it focuses you to examine a problem and work toward a potential solution.
collectivist culture
conflicts most often involve violations of large group norms and values. such as failing your role Ex: as family provider or over stepping your social status by publicly disagreeing with a superior
individualistic cultures
such as US, Canada and Western Europe conflicts are more likely to occur when people violate expected norms for ex: not defending a position in the face of a disagreement.
Conflict Styles:
Competing: I win, you Lose
involves great concern for your own needs and desires and little for those of others. As long as your needs are met you think the conflict is dealt with successfully.
Conflict Styles:
Avoiding: I lose, you lose
conflict avoiders are relative unconcerned with their own or their opponents needs or desires. They avoid any real communication about the problem, change topics when the problem is brought up and generally withdraw by psychologically and physically.
Conflict Styles:
Accommodating: I lose, you win
you sacrifice your own needs for the needs of the others. the main goal is to keep the harmony and peace in the relationship or group.
represents an I lose you win philosophy.
Conflict Styles:
Collaborating: I win, you win
you address both your own and the other person's needs. often considered the ideal, takes time and a willingness to communicate. enables each person's needs to be met.
Conflict Styles:
Compromising: I win and Lose, You win and lose
compromise is the kind of strategie as meeting each other half way or a hours trade or a give and take. there is some concern for your own needs and some for the other's needs. there will be a little dissatisfaction due to the bit that both loose.
Conflict management strategies
1. the goals to be achieved
2. emotional state
3. your cognitive assessment of the situation
4. your personality and communication competence
5. your family history
Conflict Avoidance
may involve physical flight. you may leave the scene of the conflict. It may take the form of emotional or intellectually avoidance
special type of avoidance. you refuse to discuss the conflict or to listen to the other person's argument. takes the form of hammering away at your own point of view until the other person gives in (steamrolling)
"lets explore this issue together and try to find a solution
conflict strategies are this ethat attack a person's positive face (e.g., making comments that criticize the person's contribution to a relationship or the person's ability) or a person's negative face (e.g., making demands on a person's time or resources that attack the person's autonomy)
face-enhancing strategies
those that support and confirm a person's positive face or negative face.
when you hit below the belting, you can inflict serious intruy when you hit above the belt, however the person is able to absorb the blow.
refers to the unproductive process of storing up grievances- as if in a gunnysack- and then unloading them when an argument arises
Verbal aggressiveness
is a method of winning an augment by inflicting psychological pain, by attacking the other person's self-concept. The technique is a type of disconfirmation in that it seeks to discredit the individual's view of self
refers to your willingness to argue for a point of view, your tendency to speak your mind on significant issues.
Small Group
a collection of individuals who are connected to one another by some common purpose. Are independent have some degree of organization among them and see themselves as a group
small group consists of appox. how many people?
3 to 12
a particular kind of small group. It possesses all the characteristics of a small group with some extra qualities. It is a small group constructed for a specific task whose members have clearly defined rules and are committed to achieving the same goal and which is content focused.
There are five stages in small group interaction
1. opening
3. business
4. feedback
5. closing
Small group formats
the panel
symposium forum
group members arrange themselves physically in a circular or semicircular pattern. they share info or solve a problem without any set pattern of who speaks when. group interaction is informal and group members interact as they see fit.
members are experts but participate informal and without any set pattern of who speaks when as in the round table. the diff is they are often sitting side by side in from to an audience.
each member delivers a prepared presentation much like a present speech. all speeches deliver different aspects of a single topic.
symposium forum
consists of two parts. A symposium with prepared speeches and a forum with questions front the audience and answers given by the speakers.
group norms
rules or standards identifying which behaviors are considered appropriate.
high context culture
is a culture in which much of the info conveyed is communicated by the context or in the person rather than in coded verbal messages.
low context culture
most of the info is communicated in an explicitly stated verbal message. they do not assume that they share similar information so they make all the info explicit.
is a process often used in small groups it is a technique for analyzing a problem by generating as many ideas as possible.