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A reads text to speech;

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
People aren't evaluated on what they say but...
how they say it
When a topic conveniently divides itself into subdivisions, each of which is clear and approximately equal in importance
Topical pattern
Timed pattern, speech is organized chronologically into two, three or four major parts
Temporal pattern
organizing four main points on the basis of space..its useful when you wish to describe objects or places
Spatial Pattern
what type of speech uses the door in the face technique?
Persuasive speech
listening in many ways is more difficult than ______?
to focus your complete attention on the speaker.
active listening
Trace its historical or linguistic development. Example..when defining the word communication, for example, you might note that it comes from the latin communis, meaning "common: in "communicating" you seek to establish a commonness, a sharing, a similarity with another individual.
Definition by Etymology
Definition by Etymology
Trace its historical or linguistic development.
what are the 4 delivery methods of a speech
impromptu, manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous
A speech given without any explicit prior preparation. Usually happends when someone has to answer questions after he gives a speech ..its a spur of the moment type of thing.
Impromptu speech
a type of speech when you write out the entire speech, exactly as you want it to be heard by your audience, and read it to the audience.
Manuscript speech
when would it be logical to use a manuscript speech?
politics..because an ambiguous phrase might prove insulting if your just speaking randomly and it could cause serious problems
what is one of the major advantages of the manuscript?
you control the timing precisely.
Disadvantages of a manuscript?
your reading straight off the paper...its hard to not sound mechanical and robotic. You cant really move around either.
Involves thorough preparation and a commitment to memory of the main ideas and their order (and, if you wish, your introduction and conclusion.)
What are the advantages to the Extemporaneous speech...
-lets you respond easily to feedback
-you are able to move around and interact with the audience
-its like a conversation
A speech in which you explain an object, person, event or process
Descriptive Speech
you first make a large request that you know will be refused and then follow it with a more moderate request. For example, your large request might be "We're asking people to donate 100 dollars for new school computers." when this is refused, you make a more moderate request, the one you really want you listeners to comply with (for example, "might you be willing to contribute 10 dollars?")
Door-in-the-Face Technique
Requesting something small, something your listeners will easily agree to. Once they agree to this small request, then you make your real request.
Foot-in-the-Door Technique
general purpose to a speech
to inform, to persuade, special ocasion speech
this speech seeks to create understanding: to clarify, enlighten, correct misunderstandings, or demonstrate how something works
informative Speech
seeks to influence attitudes or behaviors: to strengthen or change audience attitudes or to inspire hearers to take some specific action.
persuasive speech
containing elements of both information and persuasion, serves to introduce another speaker or a group of speakers, present a tribute, secure the goodwill of the listeners, or entertain the audience.
special occasion speech
guidelines to selecting your topic
-topic should be
-culturally sensitive
-limited in a scope (narrow down huge topics into something smaller)
Introduction rules
first- gain your listeners attention( brief story, shocking fast, or a creative question)

second-establish connections among yourself, the topic, and the audience..tell audience why you are speaking on this topic. Tell them why you are concerned with the topic and why you're competent to address them.

third- orient your audience;tell them what your going to talk about
focusing on facts and evidence rather than on emotions or credibility claims
Logical appeal
what is the most effective appeal?
Involves drawing a conclusion on the basis of the presence of clues or symptoms that frequently occur together.
Reasoning from sighn
5 steps in motivated sequence..
I. Attention step
II. Need Step
III. Satisfaction step
IV. Visualization step
V. Action step
gives the audience what it wants. Helps you maintain attention.
what are the three types of narratives?
1. Explanatory narrative

2. Exemplary narrative

3. Persuasive narratives
Explain the way things are. the biblical book of Genesis, for example, explains the development of the world..which type of narrative is this?
Explanatory narrative
Provide examples of excellence to follow or admire. Which type of narrative is this?
Exemplary narrative
Try to strengthen or change beliefs and attitudes. Which type of narrative is this?
Persuasive narrative
what are the three rules of narratives..
1. keep it short and few in number

2. maintain a reasonable chronological order.

3. make explicit the connection between your story and the point your making.
What is speaker apprehension?
scared of speaking
What are some tips to avoid speaker apprehension?
-Gain experience

-See public speaking as conversation

-Stress similarity (connect with audience)

-Prepare and practice throughly

-Move about and breath deeply

-Avoid chemicals as tension relievers
The general idea behind this technique is that the way you think about a situation influences the way you react to the situation.
cognitive restructuring or cognitive reappraisal.
A technique designed specifically to reduce the outward signs of apprehension and also to reduce the negative thinking that often creates anxiety.
performance visualization
A technique for dealing with a variety of fears, including those involved in public speaking.
Systematic desensitization
Summary figures that help you communicate the important characteristic of a complex set of numbers.
Strengths and weaknesses for statistics..
strengths- gives listeners good information to back up the main point

weaknesses- can be to overwhelming..alot of numbers not rounded off could lose the focus of the audience.
A technique that comes from the classical rhetorics of ancient Greece and Rome but today is used more widely as a stimulus to create active thinking. During this method you ask yourself a series of questions about your general subject. The process will help you see divisions of your general topic on which you might want to focus.
What is topoi?
a method where you ask yourself a series of questions about your general subject. It will help you see divisions of your topic on which you might need more work on.
What are the two types of pauses?
filled and unfilled
Words like..er, um, ah, well..are examples of what?
filled pauses
Are filled pauses effective or ineffective? why or why not?
ineffective because that make the speaker appear hesitant, unprepared, and unsure of him or herself.
Silences interjected into the normally fluent stream of speech.
unfilled pauses
Are unfilled pauses effective or ineffective?
effective because with a couple second pause it emphasizes main points or shocking or sad statements that you want your audience to take in.
Production of syllables or words according to some accepted standard, as identified in any good dictionary.
Convey ideas in parallel (similar, matching) style for ease of comprehension and memory.
parellel sentences
Side by side contrasting ideas in parallel fashion. (ask not what your country can do for you;ask what you can do for your country.)
antithetical sentences
Reserve the key word till the end of the sentence.
periodic sentence