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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
critical listening
gives a fair hearing to messages taht go against attitudes or come from unattractive sources; develop a skeptical orientation to what you hear; EXAMINE EVIDENCE, ASSESS THE CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES< ANALYZE RHETORICAL STRATEGIES
assumptions or projections based on incomplete data
to evaluate speeches, critique:
commitment, adaptation (to listeners), purpose, freshness, ethics, substance, structure, language use, and presentation skills
extemporaneous presentation
students carefully prepare and practice a speech but do not write it out or memorize it
the moral dimension of human conduct, involves the way we treat others and want to be treated by them
responsible knowledge
knowing the main points of concern, understanding what experts believe about them, being aware of the recent events or discoveries concerning them, and realizing how these ideas affect the lives of listeners
selective relaxation
a technique in which you relax yourself by breathing deeply and tense and relax all parts of your body separating
cognitive restructuring
changing the messages you send yourself about your public speaking experiences
responsible knowing(short def)
the most comprehensive understanding of your topic that you can develop in the time available to prepare your speech
meta-search engine
engages several general search engines at the same time, expanding the scope of your research
subject directory
organizes links on topic-specific materials
invisible web
contains highly credible databases on the Internet that are not tapped by popular general search engines
advocacy web sites
purpose is to change attitudes or behaviors (often .org)
information web sites
provides factual material on a specific topic (edu, gov, com)
evaluate research material using:
authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage
evaluate the credibility of the source
evaluate accuracy
look at other materials that relate to your topic and see if they concur
freedom from bias
evaluate coverage
the breadth and depth of info provided
questions that ask a person to elaborate on a response
mirror questions
reflect part of a response to encourage additional discussion
confirms the meaning of something that has been said
provides encouragement for the person to communicate further
source card
contains standard bibliographical information
information card
records summaries, paraphrases, and quotations
supporting materials
help illustrate the meaning of topics, show the relevance of ideas, make your words memorable, and verify controversial statements or claims
statements that can be verified by independent observers
numerical facts; describe the size of something, make predictions, illustrate trends, or show relationships
translates unfamiliar or technical terms into words your listeners will understand
claifies a topic or demonstrates how it works
word picture that helps listeners visualize what you are talking about
supports an idea by showing what others have said or written about it
expert testimony
comes from people who are qualified by training or experience to speak as authorities on a subject
lay testimony
represents the voice of the people and is highly regarded in countries in which elections are the source of political power; firsthand experience or strong feeling with the topic
prestige testimoney
well-known and respected public figures; power based on that person's good repution
brief example
a specific instance to demonstrate a general statement
extended example
contains more detail and allows you to dwell more fully on an illustration
factual example
provides strong support for your ideas because they are grounded in reality
hypothetical example
a composite of actual people, situations, or events
story that illustrates an idea
helps an audience grasp an idea by pointing out its similarities to something else the audience already understand or accepts
combines the principles of comparison and contrast; points out similarities between things or concepts that are essentially dissimilar
literal analogy
the subjects come from the same realm of experience, such as football or soccer
figurative analogy
the subjects come from different realms of experience such as business and sports
relevant supporting materials
apply directly to your topic and specific purpose
representative supporting materials
depicts a situation as it typically represents
reliable supporting material
comes from credible sources and can be confirmed by other authorities
informative value
measured by how much new and important information or understanding it provides the audience
agenda-setting function
the media establishing the topic's importance in the public's mind
how much an object contrasts with its background
spatial design
useful for speeches that describe places or locate subjects within a physical arrangement; orderly imaginary journey from one place to another
sequential design
moves people through time;step by step
chronological design
presents the sequence of important events in the history of a subject; best suited to explanation
categorical design
for when you want to discuss subjects that have natural or customary divisions
comparative design
useful when topic is new to audience, abstract, highly technical, or simply difficult to understand; relates the topic to something the audience already knows about
causation design
explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it
the tendency to behave in a certain way
the conviction in the existence or reality of something or in the truth of some assertion
an indicator of what people feel is good or bad, ethical or unethical, just or unjust
overt, observable actions such as voting for increased funding in education
law of selective exposure
1. listeners actively seek out information that supports their opinions, beliefs, values, decisions, and behaviors 2. listeners actively avoid information that contradicts their existing opinions, beliefs, attitudes, values, decisions, and behaviors
similarity of cultural, educational, or social backgrounds may help you indentify with your audience
reasoning from specific instances
you examine several specific instances and then arrive at a generalization about the whole (induction)
reasoning from causes and effects
you may reason from cause to effect or from effect to cause
reasoning from sign
drawing a conclusion on the basis of the presence of signs because they frequently occur together
straw man
easy-to-destroy oversimplifiction or distortion of the opposing position
plain folks
the speaker is good because he or she is "just one of the guys" (fallacy)
card stacking
the speaker selects only the evidence and arguments that support his or her case and may even falsify evidence or distort facts to better fit the case
thin entering wedge
ex. same sex marriage will destroy the family
agenda setting
a speaker indicates that X is the issue and that all others are unimportant and insignificant
personal interest
the speaker disqualifies someone because he or she isn't directly affected by the issue or doesn't have firsthand knowledge; speaker disqualifies someone because he or she will benefit in some way from a proposal
glittering generality
tries to make listeners like an idea because it is associated with things they value highly (like free speech or democracy)