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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Managing Anxiety Before You Speak
1. Pessimistic attitude
2. Inadequate preparation and practice
3. Negative or insufficient experience
4. Unrealistic goals
5. Negative self-talk
6. Misdirected concerns about what a speaker should focus on in preparing to speak
Relational Component and Content
Content - first part of a message, substance of what speaker wants to convey
Relational component - second part of a message, collective impact of the verbal and non-verbal components of that message as it is conveyed

Meaning is derived from both
1. Open with impact
2. Focus on thesis statement
3. Connect with your audience - show the value of your speech
4. Build your credibility
5. Preview your speech (thesis)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Growth Needs: Self-actualization

Deficiency Needs: Self- and social-esteem, belongingness and love, safety needs, biological needs
Types of Supporting Material
1. Examples
2. Facts
3. Statistics
4. Quotes/Expert opinion
5. Description
6. Explanation
7. Narrative
Boolean Logic
And - narrows search
Or - broadens search
Not - excludes items from search
Categories of Informative Speeches
1. Explain a process
2. Explain a concept
3. Instruct
4. Demonstrate how to do something
5. Describe
Signposts and Tips
1. Touch-connect-preview
2. Enumerate key points
3. Give nonverbal reinforcements
4. Use visual aids
5. Use words that cue
Zone of Interaction
Area of audience in which speaker and audience members can make eye contact
Before - contact the person, research, prepare specific questions

During - show up on time, be proactive, engage in active listening

After - follow up, transcribe the tape
Global plagiarism - completely stolen

Patchwork plagiarism - some stolen (including ideas)

Incremental plagiarism - forget to cite a source
Public speaking vs. Everyday conversation
Encoding - The process by which ideas are translated into a code that can be understood by the receiver

Decoding - The process by which a code is translated back into ideas

1. Must tailor your message
2. Adapt to listener feedback
3. Organize thoughts logically
4. Full of storytelling and examples
Communication apprehension vs. Speech anxiety
Communication apprehension - Fear about communicating interpersonally and in groups, not just in public

Speech anxiety - The unpleasant thoughts and feelings aroused by the anticipation of a real or imagined speech in public
Organizational patterns
Time pattern - based on chronology or a sequence of events

Extended narrative - the entire body of the speech is telling a story

Spatial pattern - based on physical space or geography

Categorical pattern - based on natural divisions in the subject matter
Goals of Delivery
1. Be conversational
2. Speak with enthusiasm (voice inflection)
3. Speak with confidence
4. Form a relationship with the audience (eye contact)
How to evaluate a credible source
Recency, Sponsorship, Authorship
Ending with Impact
1. Give a quotation
2. Tell a brief anecdote
3. Make a concrete call to action
4. Return to your opening theme
Slang; language specific to a group of people
Quote vs. Paraphrase
Quote - when it's 40 words or less, when they say it better than you

Paraphrase - when it's too difficult to repeat (like a law)
Hofstede's Five Dimensions
1. Power distance
2. Collectivism vs. individualism
3. Femininity vs. masculinity
4. Uncertainty avoidance
5. Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation
Short-term vs. Long-term goals
Short-term - those ends we can reasonably expect to achieve in the near term, usually by the end of the speech (audience realization of something)

Long-term - Those ends that we can hope to achieve only over an extended period of time, cannot be achieved by the end of the speech
Levels of Diversity
Individual - beliefs, values, motives, attitudes, knowledge, expectations

Demographic - age, gender, ethnicity, geographic origin, socioeconomic status, occupation, religion, language

Cultural - power distance, collectivism vs. individualism, femininity vs. masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term vs. short term orientation
Primitive, Central, and Peripheral Beliefs
Primitive - A. Learned by direct contact with the object of belief and reinforced by unanimous social consensus....B. Zero consensus, based on direct experience, but don't require social support

Central - C. Authority beliefs...D. Derived beliefs

Peripheral - E. Least central type
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values
Attitudes - a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object

Beliefs - an assertion about the properties or characteristics of an object

Values - our most enduring beliefs about right and wrong
Different Types of Constraints
1. Legal
2. Ethical
3. Nature of the occasion
4. Traditions
5. Time
6. Resources