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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
the use of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
applied sociology
sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the social phenomena
basic/pure sociology
use of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restrcturing social institutions
clinical sociology
sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
conflict perspective
vieww of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers
dramaturgical approach
element or prcess of a society that may disrupt the social system or reduce its stability
sociological approach that views inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization
feminist approach
approach that emphasizes teh way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
functionalist perspective
worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
construct or model for evaluating specifice cases
ideal type
approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
interactionist perspective
an unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes
latent function
investigation that concentrates on largescale phenomena or entire civilizations
open, stated, and conscious function
manifest function
investigation taht stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means
study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change
natural science
sending of messages through use of gestures, facial expressions,and postures
nonverbal communication
condition in society in which members of society have differening amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
social inequality
study of social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change
social science
awareness of the relationsip between an indicidual and the wider society, both today and in the past
sociological imagination
scientific study of social behavior and human groups
set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions or behavior
understanding or insight; stress need to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions
described sociological thinking
C. Wright MIlls
studied the relationship between suicide and social factors; coined term anomie
Emile Durkheim
coined the term sociology, thought theoretical science of society and systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society
Auguste Comte
writings emphasized the impact that the economy, trade, law, health, and population could have on social problems; spoke for rights of women, emancipation of slaves, and religious tolerance
Harriet Martineau
he applied the concept of evolution to species of society in order to explain how they change, over time
Herbert Spencer
taught students to use verstehen; ideal type; wanted to provided a useful standard for measuring how bureaucratic an actual organization was
Max Weber
wrote Comunist Manifesto with Engels, believed society was divided into the exploiters and exploited, thought group associations influence individuals place in society
Karl Marx
his work increased understanding of groups of small size
Charles Horton Cooley
used intellect, social service work, and political activism to assist the underprivileged and creat a more equal society
Jane Addams
combined theory and research; said sociology needed to bring together the "macro-level" and the "micro-level"
Robert Merton
relationship between a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other
Casual logic
standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
code of ethics
systematic coding and objective recording of data guided by some rationale
content analysis
subjects in experiment who are NOT introduced to independent variable
control groups
factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of independent variable
control variable
relationship between two variable; change in one does not necessarily mean a change in other (not causation)
table shows the relationship between 2 or more variable
variable in a casual relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable
dependent variable
study of an entire social stting through extended systematic observation
subjects exposed to independent variable
experimental group
unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjecets
Hawthorne effect
variable that causes or influences change in a second variable
independent variable
explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept
operational definition
extent to which a measure produces consistent results
variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data
secondary analysis
degree to which a measuer or scale truly refleects the phenomeneon under study
Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the inerpretation of data
value neutrality
specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
subcultuer that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger cultuer
viewinf of people's behavior from perspective of own cultuer
cultueral relativism
common practice or belief found in every culture
cultural universal
totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
period of maladjustment when nonmaterial cultuer is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
cultuer lag
feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural pracices that are different from their own
culture shock
set of cultural bbeliefs and prcacticse that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
dominant ideology
tendency to assume that ones' own cultuer and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
norm governing everyay behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern
norm that has been written down and specifies strict punishment for violations
formal norm
norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded
informal norm
abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; gestures and other nonverbal communication
physical or technological aspects or our daily lives
material culture
norms deemed highly necessary to welfare of society
ways of using materieal objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
nonmaterial culture
established standard of behavior maintained by a society
penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
holds that language is culturally determined; language helps shape our interpretation of reality
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differes form the pattern of the larger society
collective conception of what is considered good, desireable, and proper OR bad, undesireable and improper in a culture
process in chich a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
anticipatory socialization
theory that children's thought progresses through four stages of development
cognitive theory of development
process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
degradation ceremony
efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
expectations regarding the proper behaviors, attitudes and activites of males and females
gender role
attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into accout in his or her behavior
generalized other
altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences
impression managemnet
study factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death
life course approach
concept taht emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions
looking-glass self
person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones' life
ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
rite of passage
process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
role taking
lifelong process in which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication