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90 Cards in this Set

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Social class

According to Weber, a large group of group who rank close to one another in property, power and prestige;



according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell thier labors

Grade inflation

A rise in the average grade assigned to students; especially: the assignment of grades higher than previously assigned for given level achievements


Reasons: intentional pressure to retain students higher grades used to obtain better students evaluations of teaching

Latent Function

Unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions

Status Incosistency

Rankin high on some dimensions of social class and low on others; status discrepancy




Those status inconsistent want to bejudged based upon their highest status however others judge them based upontheir lowest status.

Gilbert& Kahl

developed a six-tier model to portray the class structure of the United States and the other capital countries.

Mobility

Intergenerational - changemade by family members from onegeneration to the next. Intergenerationalmobility can go up or down.




Structural -changethat affect large numbers of people.




Exchange –movement of people up and down the socialclass system, where, on balance, the system remainsthe same.

PovertyExplanations

Three explanations:• Structural• Individual• Poverty Triggers


Structural – the explanations sociologists prefer that states that there are features of society that deny some people access to education or training/job skills. Inequalities and discrimination.




Individual –sociologists reject such claims viewing them as stereotypes (laziness and lack of intelligence).




PovertyTriggers –loss of job, pregnancy/birth of child, divorce, accident or illness.

Single Women& Level of Education

More education and less babies

Hellinger& Judd

Sociologists, Hellinger& Judd coined the term “democratic façade” to refer to the ideologypromoted by elites to legitimate and perpetuate their power.

Anomie

Durkheim's term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the usual norms that guide thier behavior

Kohn

}Melvin Kohn, parents socialize children into the normsof their respective work worlds.

PovertyLine

The official measure of proverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than three times a low cost food budget

DeferredGratification

Going without something in the present in hope of achievement greater gains in the future

C.Wright Mills

coined the term “power elite” to refer to those who are the big decisionmakers in U.S. society

ErikWright

Stated not all fall into Marx's two broad categories. Bright resolved this by regarding some people I seem intensely members of more than one class (contradictory class locations)into :Capitalists: business owners who employ many workersPetty Bourgeoisie: owners of small businessesManagers: employees who have an authority over othersWorkers:

SocialClass & Victim of Crime

?

PovertyRepresentation

?

HoratioAlger

1800s Author




Authored fictional books portraying boysovercoming great rags to riches odds.




Limitless possibilities exist/you can doit/you can make it only if you try and work hard.




Functional would argue that the myth persist to maintain a stable society. Encouraging individuals to compete for a better life. This would place blame on the individual, not society (structures)reinforcing the system and pressures to change the system.

Race

Race is a group of people withinherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group.

ColorGradient

which is a continuum from light to dark skin color rather than in distinct racial groupings by skin color.

Adorno

?

Direct/IndirectTransfer

Direct: Involves making life so unbearable that members of a minority then leave.



Indirect: Forcibly move the minority group

InternalColonialism

The dominate group exploits the minority group (e.g low paid, menial work)

SpilloverBigotry

Stereotype that lumped Asians together; when immigrants from Japan came to US experience this type of sneaky, lazy, and untrustworthy

RaceMyths

•Someracesare superior to others


“Pure”races exist

ImplicitAssociation Test

?

InstitutionalDiscrimination

Institutional - negative treatmentof a minority group that isbuilt into society’s institutions.

PopulationTransfer

the dominate group expels the minority group


(e.g Native americans were forced onto reservation areas)

ForcedAssimilation

the dominate group absorbs the minority group


(e.g American Czechoslovakians)

InvisibleMinority

One-half live in rural areas andone-third in three states – Oklahoma, California and Arizona.}


}The other half, live predominantly onreservations, further isolating them.}



Rate of suicide is high and lifeexpectancy is lower than any other group in the U.S.




}Education lags behind most race andethnic groups in the U.S.}




}1800s US. Courts ruled Native Americansdid not own their land and made them wards of the state.}




}In the 1960s, they won a series of legalvictories, giving them control over their reservation lands.

2010U.S. Census

?

Ezekiel

Social Psychologist, Raphael Ezekiel}


Participant Observation


Found:


•Beliefin exclusive categories


•Lifeis war


•Eventshave secret causes


•Tostruggle in a cause transcends the individual




(The Racist,Mind (1995)Belief in exclusive


categories: Race represents the essence of the person


Life is war: Theworld is made up of distinct racial groups andthe war is between these racial groups.


Eventshave secret causes: Nothing is what it seems


To struggle in a cause transcends theindividual: gives meaning to an otherwise meaninglesslife

ReserveLabor Force

which owners can draw when they need toexpand production temporarily.


The existence of the reserve labor force is aconstant threat to white workers, who modify their demands rather than losetheir jobs to unemployment.


Racial-ethnic divisions at work are also encouragedand exploited. This weakens workers’ bargaining power.

Genocide

The dominate group tries to destroy the minority group (e.g Germany & Rewanda)

Separatebut equal

}After slavery was abolished Southernstates passed legislation to segregate blacks and whites, known as Jim CrowLaws.




}1896 Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equalaccommodations.

Prop.209

?

Sex& Gender

Gender: the behaviors and attitudes that asociety considers proper for its males andfemales; masculinity or feminity




Sex: biological characteristics that distinguishfemales and males; consisting of primary and secondary sex characteristics

Primary & Secondary Sex Characteristics

?

GlassCeiling

The mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work

Rape

?

Greatest ProfessionalChange/Women

One of the chief characteristics of theU.S. work force is the steady growth in the number of women who work outsidethe home for wages. Today, nearly one in every two women is employed.

Age

?

Robert Butler

Dr. Robert Butler coined the term “ageism” in 1968 to refer to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed at peoplebecause of their age.

Cummings & Henry

Elaine Cummings and WilliamHenry in their book, “Growing Old”.}


}Based theory on 1961 Kansas City Study ofAdult Life where University of Chicago researchers followed hundreds of adultsfrom middle to old age.}


}As people age, they tend to withdraw fromsociety, and this can be mutual, with society being less likely to engage withand include older people.




argued that this was a consequence of peoplelearning their limitations with age and making way for new generations ofpeople to fill their roles.}




In modern gerontology, thestudy of aging and society, disengagement theory is controversial, and manypeople do not agree with it.

Naturev. Nurture on Behavior

?

Wavesof Women’s Movements

}First Wave: Divided into radical and conservative branches. Theradical branch wanted to reform all social institutions. The conservativebranch concentrated only on winning the vote for women. After 1920 and theachievement of suffrage for women, the movement dissolved.}




}Second Wave: began in the 1960s. As more women gainedan education and began to work outside the home, they compared their wages andworking conditions to those of men. As awareness of gender inequalities grew,protest and struggle emerged. The goals of this second wave of feminism arebroad, from changing work roles to changing policies on violence against women.}




}Third Wave: Now emerging. Threemain aspects are apparent. The first is a greater focus on women in the LeastIndustrialized Nations. The second is a criticism of the values that dominatework and society. The third is an emphasis on women’s sexual pleasure.

NationalWomen’s Party 1917

}1916, National Woman’s Party founded andin 1917 began to picket the White House (Woodrow Wilson – DemocraticPresident).

Grayingof America

?

Industrialization& Elderly

}With the coming of industrialization, thetraditional bases of respect for the elderly eroded. Youngworkers became as productive asthe elderly; coupled with mass education, this stripped away theelderly’s superior knowledge.

FrancisTownsend

enrolled one‑third of all Americans over 65 in clubs that sought a national sales taxto finance amonthly pension for all Americans overage 65.


To avoid the plan without appearingto be opposed to old‑age pensions,Social Security was enacted by Congress August 14, 1935

Suttee

ViolenceAgainst Womenin India (burningliving widow w/dead husband).

GreatestPay Gap

}Men earn more than women, even when theireducational achievement is the same. U.S. women who work full time are paidroughly $700,000 less than men over their lifetime. All industrialized nationshave a paygap




??

Feminists& Sexual Harassment

?

Ageism

}When the meaning of old age changedfrom asset to liability, the perception of being “old” was no longer culturallyseen as good. However, with the babyboom generation andthe increasingwealth of the U.S. elderly and the coming of age of the baby boom generation,“old” is likelytopositively affect our images of the elderly.

SymbolicInteractionism

Basicprinciple of symbolic interactionism is that we perceive ourselves and othersaccording to the symbols of our culture.

Family

Broad definition of family: consists of people who consider themselves relatedby blood, marriage, or adoption.

Endogamy

–practice of marrying within one’s own group

Romantic Love

}the idea of people being sexuallyattracted to one another and idealizing the other. It provides the ideological context inwhich Americans seek mates and form families.]




•emotional, afeeling of sexual attraction•cognitive, thelabel we attach to our feelings

Adultolescents

}Adultolescents –A total of 18 percent of all 25- to29-year-olds are living with their parents. These “adultolescents”face issues with their parents between being independent and dependent.

LatinoFamily

culture—especially the Spanish language,theRoman Catholic religion, anda strong familyorientation, coupled witha disapproval of divorce.}


}In all studies of Latino families, it hasbeen shown that social class is more important in determining family life thanis either being Latino or a family’s country of origin.

Cohabitation

}adults living together in a sexual relationshipwithout being married—is 12 times more common than it was in the 1970s.

DivorceRate

Couples who cohabit before marriage aremore likely to divorce than couples who did not live together before marriage.




Many who live together feel pressure to marry and end up marrying a partnerthat they may not have chosen.




However, the latest research shows that of therecently married, the divorce rate of those who did and did not cohabit beforemarriage is about the same.

Familyof Procreation

the family of procreation is the family formed when a couple has its first child.

Exogamy

•practiceof marrying outside of one’s group. Best example of exogamy is incest taboo.

MaritalHomogamy

marriage between individuals who are, in some culturally important way, similar to each other

FemaleHead of Household

?

AsianFamily

BobSuzuki identified several distinctivecharacteristics of AsianAmerican families. They tend to retain Confucian values that provide a distinct framework tofamily life: humanism, collectivity, self‑discipline, hierarchy, respect forthe elderly, moderation, and obligation.

SandwichGeneration

generation of people who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children.

Familyof Orientation

familyof orientation is the family in which an individual grows up

Husband v.WifeDuties

12

MarriedCouples & Child Care

12

Education& Marriage

12

Women& Birth Rate

birth rate lowered; According to professor, withthree major events of that time: the birth control pill, the sexual revolution,and women’s changed perception of work, from a temporary activity beforemarriage to long-term careers.

Continuities

Represent lingering attachments continue to have positive relationships and may even have sex

CredentialSociety

a society in which determined eligibility for jobs based on diplomas and or degrees, even though they may be irrelevant to the actual work.

System

Hidden Curriculum

the unwrittenrules of behavior and attitudes (e.g., obedience to authority, conformity tocultural norms

GeorgeFarkas

}) investigated howteacher expectations affect grades.


}Using a large stratified sample ofstudents in a large Texas school district he found:


•Teacherexpectations produce gender and racial-ethnic biases.


•Ongender, girls and boys with the same test scores, girls were given higheroverall grades.•Onrace-ethnicity, Asian Americans were given higher average grades even when theyhad the same test scores as other race-ethnic groups.

Durkheim: Religion

Found:


•World’sreligions varied with no common belief or practice.


•Alldevelop community centered on their beliefs and practices.


•Allseparate sacred (aspects of life that deal with supernatural inspiring awe,reverence, deep respect and even fear) from profane (aspects of life that arepart of everyday life not religion).

Weber:Religion

}saw religion as a force for socialchange, observing that European countries industrialized under capitalism. Thusreligion held the key to modernization (transformation of traditional societiesinto industrial societies).

Marx:Religion

}religion the “opium of the people”because he believed that the workers escape into religion. He argued thatreligion diverts the energies of the oppressed from changing theircircumstances because believers focus on the happiness they will have in the comingworld rather than on their suffering in this world.

RussianEd. System

}is aimed at the intellectual, emotional,moral and physical development of the individual. It aims to develop theabilities that will allow a student to adapt to life in society as well ashelping individuals to make conscious choices concerning professionaleducation.

Japan:Ed. Core Value

}reflects a group‑centered ethic. Childrenin grade school work as a group, mastering the same skills/materials;cooperation and respect for elders (and positions of authority) are stressed.

IQTests

reflect a cultural literacy, not intelligence

Predictorof Attending College

Familybackground is the primary determinant

Functionsof Education

d

Principleof Education

Production of more educated workersAmericanizing immigrants

Gatekeeping

which information is filtered to the public by the media

RayRist

d

Sociologists:Study Religion

}religion analyze the relationship betweensociety and religion. They study the role that religion plays in people’s livessuch as the effects of religious practices and beliefs and how religion isrelated to the stratification system.