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35 Cards in this Set

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Sociology as a Science


Natural Sciences

-objective laws and facts


-tests relationship between variables


-tests are replicated


-hypothesis's can be tested

Sociology as a science


Positivism


Compte

-we can discover laws regarding behaviour


-science explains relations


-sociology discovers general laws; laws of co-existence and laws of succession

Sociology as a Science


Inductive Positivism


Compte

a type of reasoning about something that involves moving from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion


-uses premisis from examined obejects and experiments to draw conclusions on something not yet explored

Sociology as a Science


7 steps of inductive positivism

1)collect facts


2)facts classified/identified objectively


3)look for corrolations


4)establish cause/effect


5)develop theories based on relations


6)test theory to find individual laws


7)create policy

Sociology as a Science


Positivism


Durkheim

-compte fails to establish sociology as a science


-we should observe social facts as things to observe and measure (e.g. suicide rates)

Sociology as a Science


Positivism


Falsification


Popper

-all sciences should be subject to falsification


-rejects marxism as some concepts cannot be subject to falsification


-'all swans are white' example


-sociology could be scientific if it focused on falsification

Sociology as a Science


Positivism EV

-statistics questionable


-doesn't consider social constructions

Sociology as a Science


Interpretism


Weber

Sociology cannot be a science


-understands structure and importance of interpreting people's actions


-necessary to apply 'Verstehen' (empathy) to understand meaning


-science is strongly objective and does not allow opinion to influence research

Sociology as a Science


Kuhn

Proudly sits on the fence


scientists work within paradigms- frameworks of scientific law that influence what scientists think they should look for. Part of scientist socialization into accepting 'normal science'. Paradigm shift occurs when the dominant paradigm is no longer applicible

Sociology as a Science


Postmodernism


Foucault

challenge interpretists search for meaning and positivists science


-suggested the uncovering of ‘layers’ of different narratives rather thansearching for ‘meaning’ and by moving away from studying narrow areas of studyby crossing or transgressing these boundaries

Sociology as a Science


Feminism

recently sought a new approach to research by focusing on the experienceof women rather than accepting a male-constructed agenda

Social Policy and Sociology


yes influence!

->Left realism!


->Social Democratic!


->Liberal Feminism!


->Third Way!

Social Policy and Sociology


no influence!

->Marxism


->New Right


->Post Modernism


->Radical Feminsim


>:/

Social Policy and Sociology


Social Democratic


Townsend 1979


YES!

identified extent and causes of poverty in the UK based on surveys of over 2000 households. Used findings to put forward solutions such as more progressive taxation to fund welfare

Social Policy and Sociology


Social Democratic


Black Report 1980


YES!



identified range of cultural and structural cause of inequalities in health. Strongly argued for structural/material solutions to reduce health divide. Governments should tackle poverty and low income

Social Policy and Sociology


Left Realism


Lea + Young


YES!

Used results of local victim surveys to put forward a range of practical solutions to reduce crime. State intervention and community involvement are essential to halt crime spread

Social Policy and Crime


Liberal Feminism


YES!

patriarchy can be changed gradually by changing laws/policies


laws such as equal pay act 1970, marital rape act 1991, sex discrimination act 1975 are the result of feminism

Social Policy and Crime


Third Way


Giddens


YES!

Giddens was instrumental in the 'third way' policies of Tony Blair/ new labour government




Policies include: minimum wage, sure start, working families tax credit, rise in child benifit

Social Policy and Sociology


New Right


Murry


NO.

state should have minimum involvment


-by providing welfare (suggested by Townsend) as a solution of poverty makes it worse; causes underclass and dependency culture


-HOWEVER the government should intervene when it suits them; e.g. protecting nuclear family during 'Thatcher years'

Social Policy and Sociology


Traditional Marxism


Westerguard + Resler


NO.



If sociologists such as Townsend encourage more benefits this will reduce social solidarity. The welfare 'buys off' the working class, alienating them and creating a 'smoke screen' to convince them the government is in their favor


-social problems can only be overcome via proletariat revolution

Social Policy and Sociology


Radical Feminism


NO.

Changing policies is not enough to dismantle patriarchy, peoples core values and ideology must be changed


HOWEVER this has encouraged establishment of womans refugee centers to escape DM

Social Policy and Sociology


Postmodernism


Bauman


NO.

Sociologists are not in the position to make social policies


-it is not possible to objectively identify the truth and therefore is uncertain


-no valid basis for social policy intervention


-Sociologists should be interpreters not legislators as they were in modernist times

Social Policy and Sociology


Conclusion

-Views not always listened to (Black report rejected due to cost/political embarrassment)


-policies may be compromised by funding agencies


-social policy very often fails to have much impact e.g. New labor failed to reach its target of eliminating child poverty by 2010



Symbolic Interactionalism


Humans and Animals


Mead

Draws comparrisons between animal and human behaviour, animals respond to stimuli while humans interpret and select meaninful responces. Unlike animals we can take the role of the other to determine the meaning of actions

Symbolic Interactionalism


Mead

meaning shapes society


-successful interaction takes place when group members share the meaning of nature


-shared meaning is achieved through interpretation of symbols


-this determines an awareness of point of view of others, dependent of the development of the self

Symbolic Interactionalism


Blumer

developed mead; meanings developed during interaction are subjective/not fixed. 3 key principles


1)people act in terms of symbols


2)meaning arises from interaction but is not fixed


3)action is partly conscious as we change how we act to meet expectations of others

Symbolic Interactionalism


Looking Glass Self


Cooley 1922

by taking the role of the other we can see how others interpret our behaviour to tell us about ourselves. We can use impression management to manipulate others images of us.

Symbolic Interactionalism


Dramaturgical Model


Goffman

we construct ourselves by manipulating other's impressions of us. We are social actors, using language, expressions, gestures and props. Society is a stage but backstage we can be ourselves

Symbolic Interactionalism


Labeling Theory


Becker 1963

defining other peoples impressions of you can become real as 'if something is defined as real it becomes real in consequence'


we can create labels for ourselves but labels can lead to self fulfilling prophecies. the process alters self perception and identity

Social Action Theory


Integrated Approach


Giddens

-we have aspects of society that require both agency and structure to exist


-structure has 2 elements: rules and resources


-these can be changed through human action, routine behavior creates structure

Social Action Theory


Integrated Approach


Taking the Role of the Other EV


Giddens

-we reflectively monitor our behavior to fit future situations


-can lead to unintended consequences e.g. increased tuition fees mean more funding, but less students

Social Action Theory


Integrated Approach


Weber

Verstehen (understanding); agrees with Blumer

Ethnomeathodology


Garfinkle 1967



social order is an illusion, created in the minds of people with their common-sense procedures. Social reality is a social construction


breaching experiments - examined peoples reactions to the breaching of everyday assumptions, shows how fragile social order is

Social Interactionalism


Dramaturgical Model EV

Functionalism: people are puppets, internalised norms and values dictate our behaviour

Social Interactionalism


EV

Marxism - blumer and mead fail to explain power relations


-Blumer exaggerates the idea that behavior is predictable


-agency theories over estimate the individuals ability to change social structure