Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

artificial equality

equal time given to news "stories"

--> bite sized (lacking time to fully process)

--> after X minutes, inevitable commercials

--> remarginalize

loss of meaning

the compilation of weather, disaster, sports, war, celebrity, suicide, rape, etc. has a numbing effect on the viewer

--> everything becomes trivial

emotional neutrality

the appearance of objectivity/credibility

-overides Truth itself ("truthiness")- make it sound true

-reality becomes entertainment, malleable

-new scientists- try to appear objective

"The Banality of Evil"

-Hannah Arendt

-the great evils of history were not carried out by sociopaths or fanatics, but ordinary people (doing their job, participate in evil, don't fully grasp what they're doing)

-systematized, not shocking

manifest functions

the intended function of the institution

ex: government maintaining democracy

latent functions

the unintended function of the institution

ex: government privileging corporations

The Unintended Functions of the Media

- define what is happening and what is not

- define what the world is and is not

What You Can Do As A News Consumer

(8 Things)

1. Separate out what is important

2. Understand that it is a show

3. Never underestimate commercials

4. Uncover the politics/economics of the companies

5. Pay attention to how language is used

6. Reduce news consumption

7. Reduce your opinions by 1/3

8. Support media education in schools

The (Social) Construction of News

1. Deadlines (Eternal Present)

2. Resource Limitations (Time/Money)

3. Geographical Focus (Audience)

4. Commercialization and Marketing (Increase Profits)

5. Organizational Structures (Large vs. Small)

6. Ownership (C.O.I.)

7. Use of Sources (Which experts?)

8. Branding ("Trustiness")

9. Values (Anti-American)

10. Tribalism/hyperlocalism (Specialized)

11. Story Formula (A+B=C)

The Culture of Fear

1. What makes a good headline?

-From 1990-1998, the national homicide rate decreased by 33% while, over the same period, network news coverage of homicides increased 473%.

2. What are people talking about?

-the construction of "common sense" (halloween, gangbangers, road rage, etc.)

3. Are you prepared for the worst?

-natural disaster, pandemic, & crime preparations --> extremely lucrative industry


the conflation of news and entertainment brought about by market imperatives driving the media industry


a commercial advertisement that takes the form of another type of television programming proliferated first in 1984 when commercial broadcasting was deregulated by the FCC

video news release

a form of public relations commonly submitted by corporations to TV news outlets in order to shape public opinion; the FCC has ruled that they do not need to be labeled as such

-common in use in US news broadcasts due, in part, to cost-cutting pressures

folk devils

scapegoats, typically deviants, within a society often blamed for social problems

(witches, Jews, Catholics, unwed mothers, immigrants, etc.)

moral panics

when a society adopts an inflated belief that a particular activity, group, or subculture is at the heart of social degradation

(satanists, war on drugs, role playing games, obesity, crime rates)

censorship by substitution

-a.k.a. lies of omission

- a phenomenon which occurs when less important or trivial matters dominate a media landscape in a way that masks or sidelines more essential issues/topics

The 10 Values of Our Fantasy World

1. material consumption satisfies

2. the world is dangerous

3. most people are wealthy/powerful

4. men are more powerful than women

5. a high status job is essential (self-confidence)

6. business people are untrustworthy

7. law enforcement is strong/right

8. the supernatural is real

9. self-interest is fundamental

10. heroes are amazing


-involves power and dominant groups

-invisible for the privileged

-the flip side of discrimination

-cannot exist in only one direction


-overt (individual)

-institutional (collective)- invisible

-can be held by anyone/ any group against any group

What makes it easy to kill human beings?

1. Maximize power differential (size, destructive power, no retaliation, quick/easy, shock & awe, massive military superiority, far away)

2. Insignificant Loss/ Significant Gain (no purpose or negative/evil purpose, numbers, demonize the enemy, minimize meaning of individuals)

3. Maximum difference between you and subjects (ugly, alien, no relationship, major cultural/belief differences, few ties)

4. A Form of Justice (just punishment for crime/criminal potential, be/highlight the "victim" or highlight chronic criminal

5. No consequences/ positive (others consider is normal/good, little/no mess, demonstrate support, limit media coverage of war)

Long-Term Effects of Media Violence

1. Training Behavior (necessary skills)

2. Physiological Habituation (fearless responses)

3. Narcoticizing (addiction to the high)

4. Desensitivation (increased tolerance)

5. Fear cultivation (dangerous world)

6. Reinforcing attitudes/beliefs (serving justice)

7. Learning social norms (acceptable levels of...)

8. Changing institutions (3 strikes, dogmatic morality, zero tolerance)

What makes it easy to kill non-humans?

1. Maximize power differential (size, destructive power, no retaliation, quick/easy)

2. Insignificant Loss/ Significant Gain (no purpose or negative/evil purpose, numbers)

3. Maximum difference between you and subjects (ugly, alien, no relationship)

4. A Form of Justice (just punishment for crime/criminal potential)

5. No consequences/ positive (others consider is normal/good, little/no mess)

social distance

the closer you are to an individual, the more "real" they are to you; the more distant you are from an individual, the less "real" they are to you

-socially, geographically, culturally, physically, etc.)

white privilege

"is like an invisible knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools, and bank checks"


discrimination based on nationality/culture; the belief that one's own culture/country is inherently superior to others

-behaviors, beliefs, customs, laws

-historically, this is a commonly accepted belief of people belonging to large empires (Persia, China, Britain, US)

-can lead to colonialism, imperialism, genocide

12 Techniques for Media Literacy

1. Strengthen your personal locus

2. Focus on usefulness

3. Catalog your exposure

4. Broaden your knowledge

5. Understand the reality-fantasy spectrum

6. Examine your mental codes

7. Re-examine your opinions

8. Change your behavior

9. Do cross-channel comparisons

10. Carefully craft your own messages

11. Don't take privacy for granted

12. Take personal/social responsibility

culture jamming

-direct response

-means: active, confrontational

-goal: raise consciousness, increase transparency

-issues: legality, long-term sustainability, risk, damage to governments and corporations

ex: Banksy

media alternatives

-the middle response to media problems

-means: choice-based, non-confrontational

-goal: to change own consciousness

-issues: avoidance, micro-level

-traits: minimal/no advertising, underfunded, independent

-form: radio, tv, internet, magazine

-content: thoughtful, critical, educational, global

simple living movement

-the indirect response to media problems

-means: active, non-confrontational

-goal: to live by example

-issues: difficulty, long-term sustainability

Media Literacy: 5 Threats to Objectivity

1. Fabrication

2. Bias (ignoring and writing)

3. Imbalance

4. Partial Story (stops getting covered)

5. Lack of Context

Media Literacy: 5 Strategies

1. Analyze news perspective

2. Search for context

3. Develop alternative

4. Be skeptical about public opinion

5. Expose yourself to more news, not less

Media Literacy: Faulty Beliefs

1. Too much violence

2. Focus on amount instead of context

3. Media violence harms other people, not me

Media Literacy: Producer's Faulty Beliefs

1. Violence is necessary to storytelling

2. Blame others, not producers