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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A group of people who depend on one another for survival or well-being, through obligations, privileges, and rights.
What four things do small-scale societies have in common?
History, language, territory, and culture
What is another term for small-scale societies?
"communities of memory"
What are "communities of memory"?
a group of ppl in which membership is conferred thru birth and endures thru time in a rooted historical tradition
An interdisciplinary study that focuses on changes in physical, psychological, and social behavior as experienced by individuals across the lifespan from conception to death
Human Development
What constitutes membership in a society?
Age and citizenship
the scientific study seeking to understand how and why people change, and how and why they remain the same, as they grow older, in a sociological context
Developmental sociology
cultural similarities and differences in developmental processes and their outcomes as expressed by behavior in individuals and groups
Cross-cultural human development
What are some developmental processes?
the systematic study of relationships between the cultural context of human development and the behaviours that become established in the repertoire of individuals growing up in a particular culture
cross-cultural psychology
that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as a member of society
the way of life of a society, comprising: 1. material culture (artifacts) 2. ideas, values, attitudes, and beliefs 3. patterned ways of behavior
Developmental sociology focuses on cultural norms (w/ one exception), or "normal development," the usual patterns of growth and change that everyone follows to some degree, but which no one follows exactly. What is that exception?
Why should developmental sociologists study societies other than their own?
It puts our own society into perspective (comparisons, visual belief)
What are the three areas that Developmental sociology is seperated into?
Biosocial domain, Cognitive domain, and psychosocial domain.
Biosocial domain
the development of the body, its physical growth, and the environment and sociocultural factors that affect that development
Cognitive domain
the development of the mind and its education
Psychosocial domain
the development of the emotions and personality
What is the range of the normative stage of life or "prime of life"?
21-40 years old
Ecological Approach
studies the physical and social contexts in which an individual develops
Social Contexts of Development -- Historical
prevailing assumptions, cohort differences (ppl you grow up with, same age, one generation vs. another) critical public events, current technology, popular trends
Social Contexts of Development -- Socio-economic
Income, occupation, education, residence
Social Contexts of Development -- Cultural-ethic
prevailing assumptions
What is a social model?
A simplified representation of a social system or phenomenon; like theories, models generate testable hypotheses meriting further investigation
What is a theory?
a set of interconnected hypotheses that have been repeatedly tested and not rejected; offers general explanations for natural or social phenomenon; tentative and subject to modification
What is a hypothesis?
a testable, falsifiable proposition concerning the relationship between particular sets of variables
What are the three goals for Human Development?
1) improve theory, 2) discover similarities and differences across cultures, 3) synthesis - integrate findings toward a more unified discipline
What is Bronfenbrenner's theory of development known as?
the ecology of human development
What is the ecology of human development, described by Bronfenbrenner?
An individual is seen not as a passive and static entity on which the environment exerts great influence, but as a dynamic and evolving being that interacts with, and thereby restructures, the many environments with which it comes into contact
What is Bronfenbrenner's Microsystem?
the interactions between the child and her immediate environment (family, preschool, church group) and resulting behaviors such as dependence or independence and cooperation or competition.
What is Bronfenbrenner's Mesosystem?
Comprises the linkages and processes taking place between two or more settings containing the developing person; recognizes that the individual microsystems are not independent but are closely interrelated and influence each other
What is Bronfenbrenner's Exosystem?
Beyond the child's immediate environment in which he/she may not be a part of but influences his/her development significantly. e.g. parents place of work, community health and welfare institutions, mass media, neighbors
What is Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem?
the most complex system which consists of the attitudes, ideologies, customs, values, and laws considered important to the culture
What is Bronfenbrenner's Chronosystem?
The systems of the society adapting over time as the society changes; the time and sociohistorical conditions
*things change
a theory devised by Super and Harkness saying the child is at the center
Super and Harkness's Developmental Niche
What are the three interrelated components of Super and Harkness' Developmental Niche?
1) Physical and social settings of daily life in which a child lives 2) Culturally regulated customs of childcare 3) Psychology of caretakers
What is Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development?
theorized that individuals learn by actively constructing their own cognitive world
The period in which the coordination of sensory abilities and motor skills when a child understands the world largely thru immediate actions and sensations
The sensorimotor stage, or infancy; birth to 2
What is object permanence?
the awareness that objects remain the same or continue to exist even when they cannot be seen
The stage where the development of language, use of symbols, and egocentric thinking are established
Preoperational, or early childhook; 2 to 6
The stage where the performance of tasks involving conservation, in which thinking is governed by fundamental rules of logic
Concrete operational, or middle childhood; 6 to 12
The stage where the ability to deal with hypothetical problems and abstract thinking
Formal operational period, or adolescence; 12 and over
What is a scheme?
an organized pattern of thought or action applied to persons, objects, or events in an effort to make sense of them (mental pic of world and things in it)
What is assimilation?
A process by which new info and ideas are incorporated or fitted into existing knowledge or schemes
What is accommodation?
A process of adjusting or modifying existing schemes to account for new ideas and info
What is Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Developmment?
development is the result of interactions between cultural and historical factors; matching a child's demands with the requirements of her culture
Who coined the term zone of proximal development (ZPD)?
What is the zone of proximal development?
The distance between a child's actual developmental level and the higher-level potential
ie. what the child can achieve independently compared to what it can achieve with guidance
Vygotsky developed three sequential stages in the evolution of speech. What are they?
1) social speech 2) egocentric speech 3) inner speech
What is 'social speech' in Vygotsky's evolution of speech?
speech designed primarily to gain the attention of others or to express simple ideas and lasts until approximately three years of age.
What is 'egocentric speech' from Vygotsky's evolution of speech?
speech that serves to control the child's own behavior, and is usually verbalized
What is 'inner speech' in Vygotsky's evolution of speech?
speech that consists of self-talk, during which children rehearse what they are going to say before actually saying it
What did Erikson's Psychosocial Theory emphasize?
Emphasis was on growth of normal or healthy (rather than abnormal or neurotic) personality development