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107 Cards in this Set

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Mass Media

A method of transmitting information/entertainment to a large scale audience

3 types of media organisations

.Privately owned eg. Sky


.Publicly owned eg. Channel 4


.State Owned eg. BBC

Vertical Intergration

Owning many means of the media


Eg. Rupert Murdock owning newspapers, tv etc

Horizontal Intergration

Owning all aspects of a media and the means to produce it


Eg. owning newspapers, the printing companies, the reporters etc

Transnational Ownership

Owning media globally


Eg. Rupert Murdock owning newspapers in Australia, America, England etc

Pluralism:


(general overview)

.Sees western societies as representative democracies. Population's concerns and interests are represented equally


.Media Deregulation (increasing public companies) give people what they want


.Media represents wide range of views to cater to all


.Bias reflects the majority


.Concentration is positive

Evaluation of Pluralism:


(Bagdikian 2004)

.Concentration of USA media companies is bias to right-wing views (little room for radical/liberal ideas)


.Local news taken over by large coperations


.Choice narrowed - TV/Radio offer same reality/sitcoms/soaps/movies (Limits diversity and opinion)


.Media fails to operate in public interest

Evaluation of Pluralism:


Drive for Profit


.BBC funded by license fee, required to inform, educate and entertain by law


.Others funded by advertising for profit


Drive for Profit:


McCullagh 2002

Political coverage being replaces by infotainment; human interest stories, celebrity gossip etc



Agrees with Franklin

Drive for Profit:


Franklin 1997

Agrees with McCullagh



Investigative journalists have been replaced by celebrities and presenters

Drive for Profit:


Advertising


Curran & Seaton 1997

Advertisment has become a major source of revenue - Targeted at audience with purchasing power eg. Elderly and Children



This leads to decline in diversity of media output

Media Ownership Influence:


Instrumental Approach

Media owners influence media output by using their publications to put across conservative beliefs (choosing how to portray)

Media Ownership Influence:


Structural Approach

Directly influence media output by setting the tone and politics of their product


-Williams 2003



Can create false class consciousness; owned by MC white men aimed at WC people. Promotes capitalism as positive and beneficial



Media and Marxism:


overview

.Media form of ISA (Althusser)


.Milliband - Media is the new opium of the people


.MC use media to promote capitalism as benifitial as media reflects the economic base


Media and Marxism:


Marcuse 1964

Entertainment programs divert peoples attention away from the unfair nature of society and thus prevents revolution



(Alienation)

Media and Marxism:


Gramsci

Hegemony - accepting a set of beliefs without question and allowing it to dominate over the ideas and beliefs of others

Media and Marxism:


Evaluation

.Pluralism - the media is not an instrument of oppression, the concerns of major groups in society are represented


.Rise of citizen journalism


.Media does not always reflect dominant ideology

Economic globalisation

Integration of markets in the global economy


e.g. Oil, financial

Cultural Globalisation

Transmission of ideas, norms and values globally. Usually exhibited in western countries spreading dominant western values to less developed Asian and African countries



e.g. Nestle selling baby milk powder to mothers in poorer countries

Cultural Imperalism

The idea that one culture is dominant over others and is promoted as the ideal norm for all countries to conform to, usually western (American) culture

Media Imperialism

The idea that smaller countries are losing their identity due to dominance of media from larger nations


e.g. Mcdonalds and similar American fast food chains are world wide

Media and Cultural Imperialism:


Evaluation


Cultural responce

Ang 1985 -

Media and Cultural Imperialism:


Evaluation


National and Regional Broadcasting

Aljazeera - Arabic news that operates globally providing wide range of global news stories

Media and Cultural Imperialism:


Evaluation


Minority Ethnic Media

Media targeted at ethnic minorities help keep cultural identity


e.g. Hispanic Business Magazine


Black Entertainment Television


Ebony Magazine

Construction of the News:


3 main influences


Williams 2003

1. Power of those who work in the media (journalists)


2. Influence of organisational structures (routines of news organisations and occupational socialisation of journalists vital)


3. 24 Hour Cycle (events occurring within this are less likely to be reported)

Construction of the News:


News Values


Hetherington1985

-> Significant (to demographic)


->Drama


->Personalities (e.g. Celebrities)


->Sex, Scandals, Crime


->Numbers (of people involved)


->Proximity (is it near to us)

Construction of the News:


Objectivity


Tuchman 1978

. Journalists TRY to be objective


. Facts and opinions are separate


. Different sides given with supporting evidence



In practice, this means powerful voices are given prominence e.g. Government


Construction of the News:


Frameworks


Hall et al

News media place events within 'frameworks'


- good and evil are used for contrast


- powerful groups are able to act as primary definers

Construction of the News:


Frameworks


Evaluation

Powerful groups can conflict over interpretation of events e.g. Iraq war, Furgerson -> citizen journalism vs news


- Investigative news journalists can also be primary definers e.g. Mark Daly's Secret Policeman 2003

Construction of the News:


GUMG


(Glasgow University Media Group)

News is gathered and presented in a way that reflects the background of journalists and editors


-Unconsciously side with rich/power as they have more in common with them


-Representations of poor/powerless ignored


e.g. strike workers


Media do not reflect public opinion, they engage in 'agenda setting', providing the framework

Moral Panics:


Allan 1999

Journalists often claim the news represents a mirror on the world


The news gives and accurate and impartial reflection of events


Moral Panics:


Cohen 1960's

Mods and Rockers~


-Youth subcultures


- media greatly exaggerated and distorted violence between groups


-police increased


-more arrests made


-disturbances became more common

Moral Panics:


Folk Devils

a label used by the mass media to describe a group who's behaviour is seen as a threat to social order

Moral Panics:


Features


Goode & Ben-Yehuda 1994

1. Activity gains media attention


2.Agencies of control respond


3. Deviance becomes amplified


4. Exaggeration symbolisation prediction


5. Problem is redefined

Moral Panics:


Evaluation


Critcher 2003

-Media is not always able to trigger a moral panic by identifying a folk devil, societal consensus is necessary for its development e.g. gay-plague AIDs and HIV moral panic failed


because experts challenged it


-Moral panics can linger for years, disappearing and reappearing

Media Representations:


Process of message trajectory-


Message Formulation

How the particular media message is put together and by whom is very significant

Media Representations:


Process of message trajectory-


Message Content

What is induced/left out in the media reflects the values of those who formulated the message


eg. interests of the powerful

Media Representations:


Process of message trajectory-


Audience Interpretation

Messages are interpreted in different ways

Media Representations:


Process of message trajectory-


Treatment of social groups

Opinions of social groups are formed by the recipient and interpretation of the media message given out

Media Representations:


Stereotypes


Lipman 1922

'The little pictures we carry around in our head'



The widely held beliefs about the characteristics of a social group

Media Representations:


Gender


Bob Connell 1995

Cultural expectations of gender roles in the UK is still the product of hegemonic ideas of how the sexes should behave as adults


-Men are 'Breadwinners'. Masculine identity is competitive, aggressive and ambitious


-Women have domestic roles. Feminine identity is less rational, more emotional/neurotic

Media Representations:


Gender


Bob Connell - Patriarchal Ideology

Hegemonic gender roles constitute a patriarchal ideology that assumes masculinity is dominant. This idea is transmitted through the family via gender role socialisation and mass media

Media Representations:


Gender


Symbolic annihilation of women

Describes the way women's achievements are condemned/ignored by the media


1.Women's achievements rarely appear in the news


2.Women's sport coverage is minimal; treated differently to men's. Often subject to male gaze (Duncan + Messner 2005)


3.Men vastly out number women in the media - on Cebeebies only 30% of main characters are female

Media Representations:


Gender


Advertising - The Beauty Ideal


Wolf 1990

Media presents a particular physical image of women as normal. This is often unrealistic, leading to increased cases of anorexia and bulimia in young females (particularly teenagers)

Media Representations:


Gender


Advertising - The Beauty Ideal


Orbach 1991

Agrees with Wolf



Lays a large blame for eating disorders on the distorted and idealised images of women in the media

Media Representations:


Gender


Advertising - The Beauty Ideal


Cumberbatch 2004

Youth and beauty are the main features of women in commercials and that women occupy a decorative role for men



Study of television commercials reflected an "unacceptable face of sexism" and contribute to patriarchal ideas

Media Representations:


Gender - Women


Evaluation


-Some representations very positive. Shows such as 'Being Human', 'Eastenders' and 'Harry Potter' have assertive female characters



Although, these characters often have problems such as unable to maintain relationships or being neurotic

Media Representations:


Gender


Men in the Media


Children Now 1999

Media portrayals of men fall within stereotypes


->Joker


->Strong, Silent type


->Jock


->Big Shot


->Action Hero


Men rarely shown as emotional or sensitive.


Men rarely shown doing housework, when they are they are often inept e.g. Oven Pride advert

Media Representations:


Gender


The new man

In the 1980's men began to be shown as more emotional and less agressive

Media Representations:


Gender


The Metrosexual Male


Mest 1988

Attitudes towards masculinity changed; reflected men's increased interest in fashion and toilletries

Media Representations:


Gender


Retributive Masculinity


Rutherford 1999

Rejects metrosexuality, magazines such as 'Nuts' and '200' symbolise a reinforcement of men's stereotypical masculinity

Media Representations:


Gender


Feminism

Liberal - Media is slowly improving as more women rise to positions of influence within media occupaions


Marxist Feminists - Sex sells, the need to attract an audience is the primary factor of media actions


Radical - Retributive masculinity is a social backlash against gains made by women

Media Representations:


Gender


Postmodernism


Gauntlett 2008

The relationship between the media and its audience is complex and the people respond to the images portrayed in a number of ways

Media Representations:


Gender


Pluralism

The media meets the needs of males and females.



The media is giving the audience what it wants

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Representations of teenage sexuality


Batchelor et al 2004

Media analysis of magazines and tv shows:

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Homosexuality


Gerbner et al 1986

Media is guilty of symbolic annihilation of gays and lesbians. They are eaither portrayed unrealistically or not at all

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Gay Stereotypes


Craig 1992

->Effeminate and Camp


->Macho


->Devient


->Flamboyant

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Soap Operas

Less stereotypical, more likely to challenge stereotypes



BBC 'flooded' with 145 complaints after airing gay kiss before 9pm

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Evaluation


Gauntlett

LGBT+ people still under represented, but it is improving with gay (Cpt. Jack Harkness), lesbian (Irene Adler) and bi (Korra) characters

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Evaluation

Gill 2007 - Gay images sanitised so as not to scare away advertisers



Queer as Folk: Russel T Davies serise realistically portrays gay sexual practises

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Advertising


Commercial Closet 2004

Counted 1700 ads from 33 countries.


Found:


1.Increased acceptance of gays+lesbians


2.Increased 'Pink £ Power' -> Ikea first gay advert 1994


3.Gill: gay imagery aimed at heterosexual audience

Media Representations:


Sexuality


Conclusion

Gay and lesbian rights have been reduced to consumer choice


Increase in positive representations, but equality has not yet been achieved and there is a long way to go

Media Representations:


Disability


Definition

Medical Model-


Disabled by mental/physical impairments



Social Model-


Disabled by societies limitations


Media Representations:


Disability


Under representation


Agyeman 2003

Content analysis of representations on TV 1993-2002


-Disabled people appeared infrequently


-Little change over the years


-Limited to medical model

Media Representations:


Disability


10 Stereotypes


Barnes 1992

->Pitiful/Pathetic


->Objects of Violence


->Sinister/Evil


->Atmospheric/Curious


->Super cripples


->Objects of ridicule


->Own worst enemy


->Burden


->Sexually abnormal


->Incapable of normal community life


Media Representations:


Disability


Effect of Telethons


Roper 2003

Representations can create problems for people with disabilities as telethons rely on cute children who are not representative. Telethons encourage the general public to alleviate their guilt by giving money rather than being informed

Media Representations:


Disability


Effect of Telethons


Karpf 1988

There is a need for charities but telethons are about entertaining the public rather than helping us to understand the reality of having a disability. Consequently, these media representations confirm social prejudices e.g. that they are dependant on the help of able bodied people

Media Representations:


Disability


London Paralympics 2012


Bournemouth University Media School

-Paralympics had a noticable impact on the way disabled sport is talked about


-Viewers more enthusiastic than expected


-Shift from seeing disability to seeing sporting excellence


-viewers felt less uncomfortable about watching disabled sport on TV

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Statistics

-Ethnic minorities make up around 14% of the UK's population


-Ofcom 2008- these groups are the front of new media e.g. mobile phones/TV


-Some media representations do not accurately represent their lives

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Stereotypical Representations


Akinti 2003

TV coverage of ethnic minorities focuses on crime, Aids in Africa and black under achievement in school


Little attention is given to the positive achievements of black people

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Black Stereotypes


Van Dijk 1991

-> Criminals


-> Threat to White Culture


-> Unimportant Compared to Whites


-> Abnormal


-> Dependant


->Invisible (Symbolic Annihilation)

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Moral Panic of Rap Music


Zylinska 2003

Started by home secretary David Blunkett


-Artists like 50Cent and So Solid Crew accused of glorifying gun crime

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Symbolic Annihilation


BBC News on-line survey 2005

-Ethnic minority groups appeared in limited roles e.g. low status work


-Little space given to minority interests


-Advertisements show very few minority images


-Tokenism


-Black/Asian characters rarely shown as ordinary characters

Media Representations:


Ethnicity


Changes in Media Representations

-More TV shows now show BME characters in non-stereotypical roles e.g. Eastenders


-Racist and colonial representations in adverts are less prevalent


-Social media campaign to ensure Mary Seacole remained on the GCSE History syllabus


However: it is rare for BME actors to recieve star billing and negative stereotypes of islam are presant

Media Representations:


Social Class


Neo-Marxism Overview

Mass media representations of social class rarely focus on social tensions or class conflict



Function of the media is to ensure the cultural hegemony of the dominant capitalist class

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of the Monarchy


Nairn 1988

-Mass media rarely criticises the monarchy


-Since WW2 the monarchy has re-invented itself as the royal family


-This has resulted in a national obsession with every trivial detail of their lives being documented like a soap opera


-Media views royal events as national events

Media Representations:


Social Class


Positive Representations of the Monarchy

The media celebrate the activities of the monarchy and forgive their misdeeds, unlike those of WC celebrities like Jade Goody



Media forgave Prince Harry's and Philip's racism but not WC reality show contestant Jade Goody

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of the Upper Class


Neo-Marxism

-Wealth and hierarchy celebrated


-Wealthy people rarely criticised in media


-Little attention drawn to inequalities in wealth or the over representation of ex-public school pupils in power


-Presented in rosy, idealised way

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of Wealth


Reiner and Young 2007

Media represents the UK as a meritocratic society. Marxists argue that wealth is more important to success than ability

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of Wealth


Cohen and Young 1981

Suggests that British culture is a monetary culture characterised by a 'Chaos of Reward' system



Business men rewarded for failure

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of the Middle Class

-Over Represented


-Large percent of British newspapers are aimed at M/C audience and their interests


-Newspapers like the Daily Mail assume the M/C are nervous about the decline of moral standards


-Most media personnel are M/C

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of the Working Class

-Representations are part of capitalist ideology


-Newman: few TV shows focus on W/C lives, when featured they are unflattering e.g.Homer Simpson


-W/C people are presented as problems in the news e.g. Strikers


Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of the Working Class


Curran & Seaton 2003

-Newspapers aimed at W/C audiences assume that they are uninterested in politics and similar important issues, instead focusing on celebrity lifestyles



Marxists see this as an attempt to alienate the W/C from capitalist oppression

Media Representations:


Social Class


Representations of Poverty and Underclass


Newman

Portrayals of the poorest in society are often the most negative and stereotypical.



Few TV shows focus on the effects of poverty

Media Representations:


Social Class


Chavs

-The media has labelled the poor as 'Chavs'


-used to imply poverty is the fault of the poor


-discriminatory and offensive, used to portray people as dangerous


-Webster 2007 - media presents chavs as social scum and the term serves to erode public sympathy

Media Representations:


Social Class


Chavs


Owen Jones 2012

-Highlights the way that W/C representations have changed from 'salt of the earth' to 'scum of the earth'


-Media uses divide-and-rule tatics as part of an ideological war against the W/C


-Ruling class uses media to pit W/C people against eachother, weakening their position

Media Representations:


Social Class


Conclusion


Cohen 2009

Representations of class reinforce stereotypes, blame the poor for their own poverty and fail to see the connection between deprivation and wealth



Media represents the powerful positivly

Media Representations:


Age


Children


Previously seen as low-status family members



In today's society, families are child centered

Media Representations:


Age


Children


McQueen 1998

The status of different age groups is determined by economic circumstances in western society


-Those in the middle (adults) have the most power, as they are working/earning

Media Representations:


Age


7 Stereotypes of Childhood


McQueen 1998

->Victims


->Cute


->Little Devils


->Brilliant


->Brave Little Angels


->Accessories


->Modern

Media Representations:


Age


Childhood and Media


Heintz-Knowles 2002

Children are represented as being interesting in matters like peer relationships, sport and romance. They are rarely shown coping with real life issues like divorce, bullying and racism



EV- Tracy Beaker, That's So Raven, Children in Need

Media Representations:


Age


Childhood and Media


Evans & Chandler 2006

Pester Power~


Children are encouraged by advertisements and film merchandising to manipulate their parents into spending money on consumer goods, sometimes putting parents in debt


E.g. Christmas + Santa

Media Representations:


Age


Youth


Two Broad Representations

Socially constructed - In terms of lifestyle + identity with their own magazines, download sites, phone apps etc



Social Problem - Moral panics etc

Media Representations:


Age


Youth


Pearson 1983

-Current youth is always a problem in the media


-There is a 'Golden Age' of 20 years ago that the media compares to current youth. No matter the year it's always 20 years ago

Media Representations:


Age


Youth


Wayne et al 2007

Content analysis of 2130 TV news items during May 2006


-286 stories featured young people


-82% presented them of victims/perpetrators of violent crime


-1% featured a young person's opinion

Media Representations:


Age


Elderly


Age Concern 2000

-21% of the population were aged 65+ but only 7% of the media representations (on TV) were



Elderly M/C white men more likely to be shown by women

Media Representations:


Age


Links to Age and Gender

-Women's 'shelf life'; finding it difficult to find media work after age 40


-> Irene Philips replaced by Alesha Dixon on Strictly come dancing because of her age. Irene was not the oldest presenter.


-Older men paired with younger women


-Adverts for anti-aging products devaluate old age

Media Representations:


Age


Stereotypes of the Elderly

Generally negative and one-dimensional


->Grumpy


->Mentally challenged


->Infantile


->Enjoying a second childhood


->Burden

Media Effects:


Media and Human Behaviour

-Suggested link between media and violence


-Norris 1999 - media affects voting behaviour

Media Effects:


Media and Human Behaviour


2 Stances on Media Effects

1. Audience strong, media weak (Pluralism)


2.Audience weak, media strong (Marxism)

Media Effects:


Hypodermic syringe model

Audience passively accepts message injected into them by the mass media


-Direct correlation between violent media and criminal behaviour


-Explains violent crimes E.g. James Bulger case + 'Chucky: Child's Play', Adam Lanza + COD

Media Effects:


Imitation and Copycat Violence


Bandura

Laboratory experiment,


-Made film of women beating up BOBO doll


-Children watched and imitated violent behaviour when left with BOBO doll


-Children who did not watch film played peacefully with other toys

Media Effects:


Imitation and Copycat Violence


McCabe + Martin 2005

Media portrays violence as heroic, causing violent acts to be viewed as acceptable (dis-inhibition effect)

Media Effects:


Desensitization


Newton


Exposure of violent killings creates a 'drip-drip' effect amounst young people



results in desensitization, behaviour becomes normal as we are socialised into accepting deviant behaviour

Media Effects:


Mean World Syndrome


Newton

Normalisation of violence makes us more passive when exposed to the real thing


-causes bystander effect


-violence used to media to grab viewers attention


-movies with sequals/remakes often have more violence/deaths than origionals (increased 'dosage')

Media Effects:


Results of Newton's Studies

->Video recordings (labelling) act 1985 resulted in all films having age certificates


->introduction of 9pm watershed



Media Effects:


Ofcom Survey 2008

2/3 of their sample of 12-13yr olds admitted video games had affected their behaviour