Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define birth rate

The number of live births, per 1000, of the population, per year

Define fertility rate

The average number of children a woman will have between the ages of 15-44

Define death rate

The number of deaths, per 1000, of the population, per year

Outline reasons for declining birth rates

•Economic factors - previously children were economic assets, now an economic burden

•Indervidualistion (Beck) - no longer follow traditional norms and values

•Improved contraception

•Change in attitudes

Outline reasons for a decline in family size

•Secularisation (contraception)

•Increase in lone parents

•Gay partnerships

•Couples leaving it too late

Outline reasons for the decline in death rates

•Medical advances

•Health conscious

•Social class differences (7-8 year gap in life expectancy)

Define and state on positive and one negative of the dependency ratio

The ratio between those who work to those who are under 15 and over 65

+ Migrants mainly move of working age so reduce the ratio

- Higher fertility rate, short term adds to ratio

Define migration and why it occurs (push/pull factors)

•People leaving/entering a country to live for a sugnificant period of time

Push - poverty, war, unemployment

Pull - education, employment, human rights

Define an ageing population and some of the effects it has

•Under 16's are sugnificantly smaller to those who work

- economical burden, increased tax, increased poverty