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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is stratification?

Structured social inequality of, more specifically, systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.

What is social equality?

A condition whereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist.

What is dialectic?

A two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways.

What is Ontological Equality?

The notion that everyone is created equal at birth.

What is equality of opportunity?

The idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone.

What is Bourgeois Society?

A society of commerce (modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive.

What is Equality of Condition

The idea that everyone should have an equal starting point.

What is Equality of Outcome?

A position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the "game".

What is the Free Rider Problem?

The notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight.

What is estate system?

Politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility.

What is Caste System?

Religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility.

What is class system?

An economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility.

What is proletariat?

The working class.

What is Bourgeoisie?

The capitalist class.

What is contradictory class locations?

The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between two "pure" classes

What is status hierarchy system?

A system of stratification based on social prestige.

What is elite-mass dichotomy system?

System of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold power in society.

What is meritocracy?

A society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement.

What is socioeconomic status (SES)?

An individual's position in a stratified social order.

What is Income?

Money received by a person for work, from transfers (gifts, inheritances, or government assistance), or from returns on investments.

What is wealth?

A family's or individual's net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts).

What is upper class?

A term for the economic elite.

What is middle class?

A term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line - though this is a highly debated and expansive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of population consider themselves middle class.

What is social mobility?

The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society.

What is structural mobility?

Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy.

What is exchange mobility?

Mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances out.

What is status-attainment model?

Approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations.