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74 Cards in this Set

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The social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self.--
An essential human experience. A life long process that takes place in the context of meaningful communication with others. A process that address some important problems
Social Reproduction
The process of perpetuating values, norms, and social practices through socialization, which leads to structural continuity over time.
"Unsocialized" children
"I" is the unsocialized self. It is about one's own desires and wants.
Social Self
According to the theory of G. H. Mead. The identity conferred upon an individual by the reactions of others. “Me” is the socialized self. The part of us that is able to see ourselves as others to. We have the perspective of the team.
"Taking the role of the other"
Coined by Mead. Infants and young children develop as social beings by imitating the actions of those around them. (Ex: play house- do actions mom and dad do) Children acquire a developed sense of self. Children achieve an understanding of themselves as separate agents by seeing themselves through the eyes of others.
Awareness of one's distinct social identity as a person separate from others.
Theories of Child Development
Mead: Analyzes human interaction in terms of symbols and the interpretation of meanings.
Piaget breaks down cognitive development into four phases: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational.
Cooley is concerned with how we develop our self esteem.
Sensorimotor Stage
According to Piaget, a stage of human cognitive development in which the child's awareness of its environment is dominated by perception and touch.
Birth to 2. It's all about me. Peek a boo.
Preoperational Stage
According to Piaget, a stage of cognitive development in which the child has advanced sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought.
2-7. Somewhat egocentric. Acquire notions of object permanence.
Piaget. Thinking involves understanding objects and events in the environment solely in terms of the child's own position.
Concrete Operational Stage
According to Piaget, stage of cognitive development in which the child's thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world.
Age 7-11. Child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations.
Formal Operational Stage
According to Piaget, stage of cognitive development at which the growing child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations.
Age 11-15. Final Phase.
Agent of Socialization
Groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization takes place.
Ex. family, school, peers, the media.
Primary Socialization
The process by which children learn the cultural norms of the society into which they are born. Occurs largely in the family.
Secondary Socialization
Peer Group
A friendship group composed of individuals of similar age and social status.
Gendering/gender learning
The process whereby we teach and learn gender appropriate behavior, attitudes
Gender Socialization
The learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling, the media, and family.
Gender Roles
Social roles assigned to each sex and labeled as masculine or feminine.
Social Roles
Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status, or a social position.
Distinctive characteristics of a person's or group's character that relate to who they are and what is meaningful to them. Gender, sexual orientation, nationality/ethnicity, social class.
Social Identity
The characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others.
Anticipatory Socialization
The process of learning about the role requirements of a particular status prior to acquiring that status.
Powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in people’s values, roles, and self conception.
Often takes place within total institutions.
Looking Glass Self
Cooley. "Each to each a looking glass, reflects the other that doth pass."
Teaches us the majority of our cultural lessons.
Most likely to treat individuals as unique and allow them to bend the application of cultural rules.
Key lessons learned: Gender and Class.
Treated more impersonally, required to fit in.
Socialization downplays diversity in the interest of efficiency.
Lessons taught are direct and indirect, or aspects of hidden curriculum.
Peer Relations
Social groups whose members are linked by common interests and are usually the same age
Most demanding in terms of conformity expectations
What to we learn from peers? Gender appropriate behavior
Mass Media
Unique because it allow adolescents and adults to engage in self-socialization.
Choosing socialization influences from a wide variety of offerings.
Social Interaction
The process by which we act and react to those around us.
The study of human behavior in contexts of face-to-face interaction.
Civil Inattention
The process whereby individuals in the same physical setting demonstrate to one another that they are aware of each other's presence.
Nonverbal Communication
Communication between individuals based on facial expression or bodily gesture rather than on language.
Impression Management
Preparing for the presentation of one's social role.
The expected behaviors of people occupying particular social positions. In every society, individuals play a number of social roles.
A set of expected behavior, attitudes, beliefs associated with particular statuses.
The social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society.
A social position within the context of a social structure.
Status Sets
All the statuses a person holds at a given time.
Social Structure
The underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another.
Patterned social behavior between specific social positions that have meaning only in relation to each other.
Master Status
Has special importance for social identity, the one status that serves as the basis for how people relate to you.
May be selected by individual or society.
May be positive or negative.
Achieved Status
Ascribed Status
Born with it.
Status Inconsistency
A newly achieved conflicts with ascribed status.
Ex: a young doctor
Role Strain
A single status involves conflicting expectations.
Ex: a college professor
Role Conflict
Two or more statuses involve conflicting roles.
Back Region
where we unwind, relax, vent, are relatively unguarded, prepare for front region activities
Front Region
where we perform, act out social positions, behave as if “on stage”, use props, anticipate social resources that will enhance a convincing performance.
Cultural Script
share collective guides that offer instructions in specific situations (dating)
Interpersonal Script
actual use of a cultural script in a given situation.
Intrapsychic Script
represent our private desires for what will happen “on stage”
Facial Action Coding System.
Coined by Eckman
Scheme for quantifying facial movement in terms of 44 component actions.
Discovered cultural universals and key differences in facial gestures.
FACS Discoveries by Eckman
Cultural universals:
All people share 6 basic emotions:
Anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, and sadness
All people display these 6 emotions using the same distinctive facial gestures
Background Expectancies
The taken-for-granted rules of conversations.
Complicated, shared knowledge of how we are to converse with others.
Draw our attention to both words and contexts of words spoken.
“stability and meaningfulness of our daily social lives depend on the sharing of unstated cultural assumptions about what is said and why” (p. 119)
Discovered by Garfinkel
Interactional Vandalism
Conversational analysis of real world exchanges.
The deliberate subversion of the tacit rules of conversation.
Response cries
Muttered exclamations (Oops! Sorry)

Used by people to covey to others, that we are alert, “controlled alertness” with regard to our appearance and actions.
Personal Space
The physical space individuals maintain between themselves and others.
Rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations.
Concerns issues of power and social inequality.
Modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society.
A mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior.
No clear standards for behavior.
First brought into sociology by Durkheim, referring to situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
Strain Theory
Conformist: +Goals +Means
Innovators: +Goals -Means
Ritualists: -Goals -Means
Retreatists: +-Goals +-Means
1st systematic attempt to explain deviance.
1876, physician working in Italian prisons.
Most prisoners were of Sicilian descent.
Assumed people with Sicilian features were more prone to crime.
Ectomorph (tall, thin, fragile)
Endomorty (short and fat)
Mesomorph (muscular and athletic)
Labeling Theory
An approach to the study of deviance that suggests that people become "deviant" because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.
Primary Deviation
According to Edwin Lemert, the actions that cause others to label one as a deviant.
Initial acts of regression.
Secondary Deviation
Occurs when individual accepts the label of deviant and acts accordingly.
The state in which the individual has accepted a label (their understanding of a Status and its role) and sees him/herself as deviant
Differential Association
Interpretation of development of criminal behavior proposed by Edwin H. Sutherland, according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime.
Retrospective Interpretation
The process of reassessing the labeled individual as a whole person, searching for other behaviors or characteristics that seem compatible with the rule violation(s)
Any physical or social characteristic that is labeled by society as undesirable.
A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity.
Conflict Theory
Deviance is political in nature.
The economic elite and socially powerful are best able to avoid accusations or convictions of deviance or crime.
Laws and social rules are political in nature. Not all are inherently fair, or good for the majority.
Ex: Drug laws
Theory of Broken Windows
Philip Zimbardo experiments.
Demonstrated how Minor acts of deviance/crime may lead to “spiral of crime and social decay.’
Led to different policing strategies-> aggressively focus on minor crimes in order to prevent more serious crimes.
Social Diversions
Trivial rule violations
Minor harmfulness
Social Deviations
Important rule violation, moderate harmfulness perceived, moderate to severe formal sanctions
Conflict Crimes/Behaviors
Very Important Rule Violations, rule important to the ruling elite, sanctions formal and severe
Consensus Crimes/Behaviors
Violations of taboos or most highly regarded mores, consensus in the community about the seriousness of the violation and how to respond