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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
Social group
Huge corporations and other bureaucracies that our society turns to
Formal organizations
A status in common, such as women, homeowners, soliers, millionaires, etc
Category
A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
Primary group
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Secondary group
Group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
Instrumental leadership
Group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being
Expressive leadership
This kind of leadership focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, and demands that group members obey orders
Authoritarian leadership
This kind of leadership is more expressive and makes a point of including everyone in the decision-making process
Democratic leadership
This kind of leadership allows the group to function more or less on its own
Laissez-faire leadership
The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
Groupthink
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
Reference group
A social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
In-group
A social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
Out-group
A social group with two members
Dyad
A social group with three members
Triad
A web of weak social ties
Network
Large secondary groups
Formal organizations
An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
Bureaucracy
Factors outside an organization that affect its operation
Organizational environment
A focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
Bureaucratic ritualism
The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
Bureaucratic inertia
The rule of the many by the few
Oligarchy
The application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
Scientific management
One that pays people for their efforts
Utilitarian organization
People join this not for income but to pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile
Normative organization
These include community service groups, as well as political parties and religious organizations
Voluntary associations
What % of first-year college students in the US participated in volunteer activity?
72%
Membership in __ is involuntary. They join this organization as a form of punishment or treatment.
Coercive organization
What are the six key elements of the ideal bureaucratic organization?
1. Specialization
2. Hierarchy of positions
3. Rules and regulations
4. Technical competence
5. Impersonality
6. Formal, written communications
What are some factors that affect organizations?
1. Technology
2. Economic
3. Political trends
4. Current events
5. Population patterns
6. Other organizations
The failure of an organization to carry out the work that it exists to perform
Bureaucratic inefficiency
Scientific management involves three steps. What are they?
1. Managers carefully observe the task performed by each worker, identifying all the operations involved and measuring the time needed for each.
2. Managers analyze their data, trying to discover ways for workers to perform each job more efficiently.
3. Management provides guidance and incentives for workers to do their jobs more quickly
What % of non-Hispanic white men in the US held management jobs?
54%
What % did non-Hispanic white women hold managerial positions
29%
What are three examples of gender-linked patterns (the female advantage) apply to women?
1. Women place greater value on communication skills than men and share information more than men do
2. Women are more flexible leaders who typically give their employees greater freedom
3. Compared to men, women tend to emphasize the interconnectedness of all organizational operations
What are the three challenges formal organizations have to face?
1. Race and gender
2. Japanese organizations
3. The changing nature of work
What are the five differences that William Ouchi highlighted between formal organizations in Japan and those in the US?
1. Japanese companies hired new workers in groups, giving everyone the same salary and responsibilities
2. Many Japanese companies hired workers for life, fostering a strong sense of loyalty
3. With the idea that employees would spend their entire careers there, many Japanese companies trained workers in all phases of their operations
4. Although Japanese corporate leaders took final responsibility for their organization's performance, they involved workers in "quality circles" to discuss decisions that affected them
5. Japanese companies played a large role in the lives of workers, providing home mortgages, sponsoring recreational activities, and scheduling social events
What are several ways in which today's organizations differ from those of a century ago?
1. Creative freedom
2. Competitive work teams
3. A flatter organization
4. Greater flexibility
Less day-to-day supervision as long as they generate good results in the long run
Creative freedom
What are the four organizational principles of McDonaldization?
1. Efficiency
2. Predictability
3. Uniformity
4. Control