• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
achieved status
a social position that an individual voluntarily occupies as a result of their effort or choice.
a condition or situation of normlessness in which society provides little moral and behavioral guidance to individuals.
ascribed status
a social position that is acquired at birth or involuntarily acquired later in life.
dramaturgical analysis
the study of everyday social interaction in theatrical terms.
the study of common sense knowledge that people use to understand and organize their everyday surroundings and events.
master status
a status that has exceptional importance in shaping a person's identity; a person's most salient social identity.
nonverbal communication
communication with others that employs facial expressions, body movements, and gestures other than speech.
presentation of self
the manipulation of one's role performance designed to create a particular impression.
the set of behavioral and attitudinal expectations that accompany a particular status
role conflict
conflict between the roles associated with two or more statuses.
role exit
when someone disengages from an important social role.
role expectation
society's or a group's expectation of the manner in which a role ought to be performed.
role performance
how a person actually behaves and acts in a role, in contrast to how the role is expected to be played.
role set
the different roles that are attached to a specific status.
role strain
tension among the roles linked to a single status
self-fulfilling prophecy
a false or inaccurate label, belief, prediction, perception, or stereotype that evokes behavior, which then makes the originally false belief come true.
social construction of reality
the process by which people's subjective definitions and interpretations of events shape their perceptions of reality.
social interaction
the process by which people act and react toward other people.
social structure
any relatively stable, recurring pattern of relationships that exists within a society.
a socially defined position that an individual occupies.
status set
all of the statuses a person occupies at a given time.
Thomas theorem
the concept that situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences.
Erving Goffman
pioneered method of dramaturgical analysis to explain social interaction in theatrical terms.
Harold Garfinkel
ethnomethodologist who theorized that social interaction is based upon assumptions of shared expectancies.
What are achieved and ascribed statuses? How do they differ?
An achieved status is a social position one occupies voluntarily as a result of one's effort, talent, or choice. College student is an achieved status. An ascribed status is a social position that is inherited at birth or acquired involuntarily later in life. Gender and the status of a felon are ascribed status. They are both recognized social positions that people occupy, though not as a result of personal choices.
What is the relationship between social statuses and social roles?
A status is a socially recognized position that an individual occupies, while a role is the set of behavioral and attitudinal expectations that someone in that position is expected to exhibit. We occupy a status and perform a role.
What is master status? Is it achieved or ascribed?
A master status is a social position that has exceptional importance in shaping a personal identity and self-image. It can overshadow the other statuses a person may occupy. A master status can be ascribed, such as being a woman or belonging to an ethnic or racial minority. A master status can also be achieved. Occupation serves as a master status for many adults.
Describe and illustrate the difference between role strain and role conflict.
Role strain involves tension between the different roles attached to a single status. For instance, in the status of college professor, there may be role strain between the roles of colleague and advisor if a coworker asks questions about a confidential conversation between the professor and a student. Role conflict involves tension between the roles attached to two or more statuses. For instance, the role attached to the status of employee may conflict with the role attached to the status of mother. If role strain or role conflict becomes too acute, a person may disengage from one of the roles. This is termed role exit.
How do sociologists analyze the congruency or discrepancy between expected and actual behavior?
Sociologists use the terms role expectation and role performance to analyze whether someone is behaving the way they ought to behave. Role expectation refers to society's or a group's expectation of how a role ought to be performed. Role performance is how someone actually plays the role they occupy.
Describe dramaturgical analysis.
Dramaturgical analysis was developed by Goffman and involves the study of everyday social interaction in theatrical terms. A status is likened to a part in a play, while a role serves as the script one is expected to follow. How one performs a role involves presentation of self, which consists of manipulation of one's role performance intended to leave a specific impression on the audience. Role performance can involve verbal as well as nonverbal communication. For example, interviewing for a new job involves an elaborate presentation of self.
Why do sociologists argue that reality is socially constructed?
Not everyone performs a role in the same way, and not everyone interprets and defines social interaction in the same way. How we interpret interactions and how we respond in our role performance are influenced by factors such as social class, gender, age, and ethnicity. Because a person's subjective interpretation of events shapes his or her definition of reality, and, in turn, the way he or she behaves, sociologists argue that reality is socially constructed.
What is the Thomas theorem? How does it differ from self fulfilling prophecy?
The Thomas theorem states that situations defined as real are real in their consequences. The self fulfilling prophecy is an initially false or inaccurate belief, perception, label, stereotype, or prediction that evokes behavior that makes the originally false belief or prediction come true. The key difference between the two concepts is that the behavior evoked by a self-fulfilling prophecy ensures the originally false definition comes true, while the behavior evoked by the Thomas theorem does not necessarily result in the original misdefinition coming true.
What is ethnomethodology?
Ethnomethodology is a manner of studying the common-sense knowledge that people use to make sense of and organize their everyday social lives. It claims that everyday interactions are structured by assumptions of shared expectancies. To uncover what these assumptions or background expectancies are, ethnomethodologists frequently "break the rules" of everyday interaction. By breaking the rules, ethnomethodologists attempt to draw out the actual meanings, assumptions, and methods people use to construct their everyday reality.