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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Since the 1900 death rates have...?


What is meant by death rate?

Death rates are the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.

There are many reasons for death rates declining, name three..?

Improved nutrition

improved medical knowledge

Public health changes and laws

What other social factors have contributed to the decline in death rates

Social factors such as:

-the decline in dangerous manual occupations such as mining.

- smaller families meaning reduced rate of transmission of infections

- greater public knowledge of what causes illness

-higher income meant that people had higher standards of living

What are the improved nutritions and how has it helped with the decline in death rates?

MCKEOWN- improved nutrition has accounted up to half of the reduction of death rates

better nutrition increased resistance to infection and increased survival for those infected.

What are the improved medical knowledge and how has it helped with the decline in death rates?

improved medical knowledge techniques and organisations have helped with the decline in death rates. for example, advanced knowledge for antibiotics, blood transfusions and higher standards of midwifery and nursing.

what happened in the year 1949?

introduction of the NHS.

What public health and environment improvements were made, that helped with the reduction of death rates?

- improved housing, ventilation and purer drinking water.

- more effective ways of disposing sewage

the government introduced laws that improved the quality and standards of living to reduce risk of infections and diseases.

In the 1900's what was the average life expectancy for males and females?

50 for males

57 for females

today what is the average life expectancy for males and females?

76.9 years for males

81.2 years for females

Class as an explanation for life expectancy?

men especially in working class unskilled jobs, as they were three times more likely to die before 65 than men in managerial professions.

what percentage of babies in the 1900's died before their first birthday?


gender as an explanation for life expectancy?

women generally live longer than men.

regional differences as an explanations for life expectancy?

people living in the north or Scotland have a lower life expectancy than those in the south

what is meant by an ageing population

there are fewer young people and more old people in the population

the average age in the UK population in the 1900's was 34.1 years. by 2031 what is the predicted average age??


by 2041 there will be what?

as many 78 year olds as five year olds

what does the decline in the infant mortality rate mean

that less people are dying, and living for longer

declining fertility??

fewer young people are being produced in relation to the number of older people in the populations

what are the five main effects of an ageing populations?

-Public services

-one person households

-social construction of ageing

-the dependency ratio

-policy implications

older people consume a larger proportion of services such as health and social care than any other age group. an ageing population means possible changes to what policies

housing, transport and other services

one person households account for what percentage of households


what gender are most of the one person households and why?

females, because they are usually younger than their husbands, and because women generally live longer than men.

What is meant by the dependency ratio?

the number of non working people in society that are economically dependant on the working age. for example non working children and non working old people

what increase the dependency ratio

what number of men no longer work and retire early.?

the more number of people retiring.

1 in 10

what is meant by the social construct of the ageing and why is it a problem?

old age is a negative problem as it is hard to meet the costs of health and social care. therefore there are fears for how society will meet the cost of providing pensions as well, illustrated by the Griffiths report.

What sociologist talks about policy implications and what do they say?

HIRSCH- argues important social policies and trends will need to change to tackle the problems of the ageing population, through the rise of taxation and people working for longer. OR both.