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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The loss of direction felt in a society when social control of an individual behavior has become ineffective.
Applied Sociology
The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations.
Basic Sociology
Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena. Also known as pure sociology.
Clinical Sociology
The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.
Conflict Perspective
A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
Dramaturgical Approach
A view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
An element or process of a society that may disrupt the social system or reduce its stability.
Feminist View
A sociological approach that views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Functionalist Perspective
A sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas.
Ideal Type
A construct or model for evaluating specific cases.
Interactionist Perspective
A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
Latent Function
An unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes.
Sociological investigation that concentrates on large scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
Manifest Function
An open, stated, and conscious function.
Sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means.
Natural Science
The study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change.
Nonverbal Communication
The sending of messages through the use of gestures, facial expressions, and postures.
The body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.
Social Inequality
A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Social Science
The study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change.
Sociological Imagination
An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past.
The scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
In sociology, a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
The German word for "understanding" or "insight"; used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions.
Causal Logic
The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequences, with one event leading to the other.
Code of Ethics
The standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession.
Content Analysist
The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
Control Group
The subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.
Control Variable
A factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable.
A relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables.
Dependent Variable
The variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable.
The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation.
An artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables.
Experimental Group
The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher.
Hawthorne effect
The unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects.
A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Independent Variable
The variable in a causal relationship that causes or influences a change in a second variable.
A face-to-face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information
A number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values.
The midpoint or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values.
The single most common value in a series of scores.
A research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community.
Operational Definition
An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept.
A portion of 100.
Qualitative Research
Research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data.
Quantitative Research
Research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form.
A printed or written form used to obtain information from a respondent.
Random Sample
A sample for which every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected.
The extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
Research Design
A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically.
A selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.
Scientific Method
A systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem.
Secondary Analysis
A variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data.
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire that provides researches with information about how people think and act.
The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
Value Neutrality
Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data.
A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.
The use of two or more languages in a particular setting, such as the workplace or schoolroom, treating each language as equally legitimate.
A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
Cultural Relativism
The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
Cultural Universal
A common practice or belief found in every culture.
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
Culture Lag
A period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
Culture Shock
The feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own.
The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.
The process or making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
Dominant Ideology
A set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.
A norm governing everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
Formal Norm
A norm that has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators.
Informal Norm
A norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded.
The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention.
The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before.
An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; includes gestures and other nonverbal communication.
Governmental social control.
Material Culture
The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives.
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
Nonmaterial Culture
Ways of using material objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.
An established standard of behavior maintained by a society.
A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
A hypothesis concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality. It holds that language is culturally determined.
A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior.
A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.
Cultural information about how to use material resources of the enviornment to satisfy human needs and desires.
A collective conception of what is considered good, disirable, and proper - or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture.