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165 Cards in this Set

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More Gender Schemas make children more prone to..
Stereotypical perception and behaviour
By age 3 children have understanding of gender. What Theory is this?
The Gender Schema Theory
What are the 4 agents of Socialization?
Family, Peer Groups, School and Media
What agents creates anticipatory Socialization and what is the definition of this development?
Peer Groups and it is learning that helps a person achieve a desired position and conformity to join a group.
What agent gives children their social position?
Family
What is a role?
The behaviors we expect of those who occupy a particular social position.
What is a gender role?
Our expectations about the way men and women act.
What is a gender identity?
Our sense of being either male or female.
What Psychologist used monkeys to conclude that nurture is important in the development process?
Harlow
Do babies across cultures use the same phonemes when they babble? Yes or no.
Yes.
Learning is most rapid through what types of reinforcement?
Continuous Reinforcement
What Psychologist used birds to examine and prove the effects of operant reinforcement?
Skinner
Define Behaviorism.
Human behavior learned through social environment.
Is Motherease or Parentease a real language?
No, it is a language not spoken in reality, but often used by parents to communicate with small children.
Define Grammar.
A system of rules that allows you to communicate with and understand each other.
Define Semantics.
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
Define a morpheme.
The smallest unit of sound that carries meaning.
Give an example of a morpheme.
Pre-, (before)
Define Syntax.
Rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
What are the four languages stages of development?
- Babbling
- One-word stage
- two-word stage
- telegraphic speech
At what age does the one-word stage occur?
Around 10 months
What is language explosion and what stage of Language development does it occur in?
When a 2 year old retains about 10-20 words a week and it is in the telegraphic speech stage.
A child hears his mother say "red" when she points to a car. The child assumes then that cars are called "red". What term is this?
Whole Object Constraint - assumptions when hearing new words that they refer to an entire object rather than a quality of that object.
Define Pragmatic.
Using background information to solve a problem.
What Language Acquisition theory says that language is fundamentally a social experience?
Interactionism
What Language Acquisition theory says that language is acquired through regularities in our experience and exposure experience?
Connectionism
What Language Acquisition theory says humans have special innate abilities for language?
Nativism
What Psychologist theorized that all humans were born with a language acquisition device?
Chomsky
What Psychologist theorized that the age before 11-12 is the critical period to learn a language?
Linnenberg
Define psychoanalysis.
Attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
What did Freud think of the human mind as and why?
An iceberg, because there is only a small part of the iceberg exposed (being our conscious) and the larger part is unexposed (unconscious), that holds thoughts, wishes, and memories that we are unaware of.
A man relaxes on a table and shares with his psychiatrist what ever comes to mind. What method is this?
Free Association
Define Ego.
Conscious mind
Define Superego.
Internalized ideals, is preconscious outside awareness of acceptable things
Define Id.
Unconscious Psychic ego, which is the unconscious mind
How does the Id aid in personality structure?
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that operates an immediate gratification.
Name Piaget's stages of development.
The Sensorimotor Stage, The Preoperational Stage, The Concrete Operational Stage, and the Formal Operational stage.
Define Conservatism and what stage it is found in.
Conservatism is seeing something the same despite changes, and this trait is found in the Preoperational stage.
What ages does the Concrete Operational Stage consist of?
Ages 7-11.
What ages does the Preoperational Stage consist of?
Ages 2-6.
George Herbert Mead is responsible for coming up with what theory?
The theory of Social Behaviorism.
What is the looking glass self theorized by Charles Horton Cooley?
A self image based on what we think others see us as.
What are the two parts of self?
I, the active side of self and Me, the objective side of self or imagining ourselves as others see us.
Defined Generalized other.
Cultural norms/values we use as reference in evaluating ourselves.
What are the four stages of development of self?
engaging in imitation, engaging in play, engaging in games, and recognizing the "generalized other"
What is the major difference between Erickson's and Piaget's stages of development?
Erickson's are based on challenged naturally faced through out life's course and Piaget's are based more on cognitive development.
What is the challenge of infancy?
Trust or Mistrust.
What is the challenge of Toddlerhood?
Autonomy or doubt and shame.
What is the challenge of preschool?
The challenge of initiative vs guilt
What is the challenge of Preadolescence?
The challenge of industriousness vs. inferiority.
What is the challenge of adolescence?
Identity vs. Confusion
What is the challenge of Young adulthood?
The challenge of intamacy vs. isolation
What is the challenge of Middle Adulthood?
The challenge of Making a difference vs self-absorption
What is the challenge of Old age?
The challenge of integrity vs. Despair
What are the stages the the Psychologist Kohlberg developed?
The three stages of moral development.
What is the first stage of moral development and at what age does this take place?
Preconventional Morality and before age 9
What are the sub-stages within Preconvential Morality?
Avoids punishment and rewards; exchanges based n self-interest
What the two sub-stages with in Conventional morality?
approval vs. disapproval and duty to society; avoiding dishonor and guilt
What the two sub-stages with in Post Conventional morality?
Affirms agreed upon rights and Universal ethical principles; civil disobedience
Define Primary Reinforcement.
an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Define Conditioned reinforcement.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Define Assimilation.
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's preexisting schema.
Define Accommodation.
adapting one's current schemas to incorporate new information.
Define Reaction Formation.
Ego unconsciously finds unacceptable impulses in their opposites. Thus people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings.
What is the Ego's role in personality structure?
Largely conscious executive of y that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on reality principle.
What is the Superego's role in
Represents internalized ideas and provides standards for judgments and future aspirations.
In what stage do children gain an understanding of conservation?
Concrete Operational
According to Piaget's cognitive development, in what stage do we first use language?
Preoperational Stage.
Define Extinction.
The diminishing of a UCS and the CR disappears.
Define Social Interaction.
Behaviour between tow or more people that is meaningful.
Give two reasons for Social Interaction.
1. mutual and reciprocal influence
2. communication
Define the Social Construction of Reality.
Reality based upon our interpretation.
What is the Thomas Theorem?
Theory that states situations defined as real are real in consequence.
Define a Status Set.
complex set of statuses (place in society) occupied by a person.
Define Status Inconsistencies.
Statuses occupied with different levels of prestige.
Define a role.
An expected behavior with status.
Define a Role conflict.
2 or more roles with contradictory expectations.
Define a Role Strain.
A single role brings conflicting expectations.
Achieved Status is attained by ________.
Merit
Ascribed Status is attained by _______.
Birth
Master status is attained by _______.
Dominant.
What experiment did Zimbardo infamously conduct that was highly unethical?
The Jail Experiment.
Define Sociology.
The systematic study of human society.
Define Structural - Functional Paradigm.
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Define Social Structure.
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
Define Manifest Functions.
The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
Define Latent Functions.
The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
Define Social conflict Paradigm.
A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.
Define Macro Level orientation.
A concern with broad patterns that shape society as a whole.
Define Micro Level Orientation.
A close up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
Symbolic Interaction Paradigm.
A framework for building theory that sees society as a everyday interaction of individuals.
Empirical Evidence.
information we can verify with our senses.
Variable
A concept whose values change from case to case.
Operationalizing a Variable.
Specify exactly what one is to measure before assigning before assigning a value to a variable.
Reliability.
consistency in measurement.
Validity.
Precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure.
Independent Variable.
A variable that causes change in another (dependent) variable.
Dependent Variable.
A variable that is changed by another (independent) variable.
Correlation.
A relationship where two or more variable change together.
Illusory/Spurious Correlation.
A apparent, though false, correlation between two or more variables.
Hawthorne Effect.
A change in s subjects behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied.
Sample.
A part of a population that represents the whole.
Questionnaire.
A series of questions a researcher presents to subjects.
Participant Observation.
A research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining in their routine activities.
Secondary analysis.
A research method in which a researcher uses data collected by others.
Deductive reasoning.
A reasoning that that transforms general theory into a hypothesis suitable for testing.
Inductive reasoning.
Reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory.
Culture
The values, belief, behaviors, and material objects that, together form a people's way of life.
nonmaterial culture
The intangible world of ideas created by members of society.
Material Culture.
The tangible things created by members of society.
Culture Shock
Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Symbols
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture
Language
a system of symbols.
Cultural Transmission
The process in which one generation passes culture to the next.
Sapor - Whorf Thesis
The thesis that people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.
values
Culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
Beliefs
Specific statements that people hold to be true.
Norms
Rules and expectations in which a society guides the behaviors of its members.
Mores
Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
folkways
norms for routine, casual interaction.
Social Control
Various means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms
High Culture
Cultural Patterns that distinguish a society's elite.
Popular Culture
Cultural patterns that are wide spread among a society's population
subculture
Cultural patterns that set apart one segment of a society's population
Counterculture
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted with in a society
Cultural Integration
Close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
Cultural Lag
The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, which may affect a cultural system
ethnocentrism
The practice of judging another's culture by the standards of ones own culture
Culture relativism
The practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards
Cultural Universals
Traits that are apart of every known culture
Socialization
The lifelong cultural experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture
Personality
A person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
id
Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
ego
Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society.
superego
Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
Peer Group
A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
Neuroscience Perspective.
How the body enables emotions, memory, and sensory images.
Evolutionary Perspective.
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.
Behavioral Genetics Perspective.
Reactions due to genetics.
Behavioral Perspective.
How we learn observable responses. (due to observation)
Cognitive Perspective.
How we encode, process, and retrieve info.
Define a complete observer.
A observer who has complete immersion is the group and influences outcome, not initially, but eventually.
Define a Participant observer.
An observer that is in a group but has no influence.
Define Qualitative.
To observe or record behaviour.
Define Quantitative.
To what extent, usually a numerical value.
Define experimental.
There is a cause and effect.
How many research methods are there?
6
Define Social Exchange.
our interactions are determined by the rewards and punishments that we receive from others.
Define Dramaturgical Analysis.
Goffman's theory that our social interaction is a theatrical performance.
Social Construction of reality.
The process through which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
ethnomethodology.
Harold Garfunkel's term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.
Attribution theory
Theory that we give casual explanation for someone's behavior by crediting the situation or disposition.
Impression Management.
Process by which we control how others will perceive us.
Thomas Theorem.
Situations that we define as real are real in consequence.
Status consistencies.
Statuses occupied with different levels of prestige
Role conflict.
2 or more roles with contradictory expectations connected to more than one status.
Role Strain
Conflict between roles connected to a single status.
What did Pavlov do and what type of learning did he theorize?
He tested the salivary glands on dogs and in turn came up with classical Conditioning.
What theory did Charles Horton Cooley come up with?
The "looking-glass self"
What theory did Kohlberg come up with?
The three stages of Morality.
What theory did Mead come up with?
The Social Self.
What theory did Skinner come up with?
Operant Conditioning and reinforcements.
Critical Sociology.
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Interpretive Sociology.
The study of sociology that focuses on the meanings people attach tot heir social world.
Scientific Sociology.
The study of society based on a system of observation of social behavior.