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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender Hierarchy
Process by which we value one gender more than the other.
Our biological makeup (how you identify yourself) male or female.
Masculine or Femine
Gender Stereotypes
Generalizations based on Gender (Masculine/Feminie)
Sex/gender system
Institutionalize patterns of gender association. Which includes precriptions w/in our social institutions (family) an example of this is Patriarchy based on mens dominance of women. What is considered masculine is preferred.
Male dominated society.
Female dominated society
Gender Norms
Expectations of social behavior (man wearing a dress)
Valuing one sex over another.
Biological aspects of both sexes.
They define the gender themselves. They live as the choisen gender (bilogically one sex but has gender characheristcs of another)
Pre/Post Op to change thier biological makeup.
Natural Selection
Survival of the Fitest. Species adapt to thier environment.
Sociobiology/evoluionary biology
Evoluntary Theory (systematic study of the biological basis of social behavior). The basic ideal is that evolutionary theory can be applied to social behavior and natural selection
Social Darwinism
Social Inequality is based on biological differences. Somehow they evolved differently (how jewish nose looks different from others)
Evolutionary Psychology
Parental Investment
Why do females perform most of the caregiving) From the moment of conception they have more of an investment in thier off spring. Women only have 1 egg men have ample sperm.
Oral Stage
Baby Feeds from mothers breast.
Anal Stage
Putting things out giving our food back to the world
Genital Stage
Most Important - We begin to identify with a sex. Boy go through castration thoughts and girls have penis envy.
Oedipal Crisis
In psychoanalysis, a subconscious sexual desire in a child, especially a male child, for the parent of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by hostility to the parent of the same sex.
Penis Envy/Castration Anxiety
Freud thinks women have penis envy
Cognitive Development Theory
Children learn gender identiy and gender sterotypes through the effort to organizer thier world.
The study of how our social world influences our behavior.
Will cause different people to apply to different schools of thoughts will change how you measure and that measurement will create a different outcome.
Structural Functionalsim
Beleives that each institution functions to promote equliberium
Institutions comprise equalibrium (everything is working as it should be)
Gender-reform Feminisms
Women to have same opportunities as men

Feminsim focus on legal rights
Focuses on gay employment
Focuses on gaining equality in developing communities
Gender-resistance Feminisms
Gaining legal rights are not enough to end gender inequality. Because male dominance is too engraned into everyday social relations.

EX are Radical Feminism and Lesbian Feminism.
Radical feminism and lesbian feminism.
Gender rebellion feminisms
Focuses on interaltionship among inequalities. Gender and inequality is just one peice of a complex system.
From Doing Gender:
Sex categorization
Male and Female
From Doing Gender:
Biological determinism
We are who we are because of our biology
Essential nature
From within, men and women are different
Accomplishment of Gender
Appropriatly displaying your gender
Gender atribution process
How does the world assign a gender to you. Ex, if you are wearing a dress you are a girl.
List three of the five adaptive differences between men and women discussed by David Buss.
1. Paternity Uncertainty - mama's baby, daddy's maybe

2. identenfiying reproductively valuable women - because women's ovulation is conceled men have the challenge of finding out who is most fertile. For women most men are fertile throughout thier lives.

3. Gaining Sexual Access to Women - Because men have a short investment in child bearing Men who spread the wealth have greater reproductive sucess than men who failed to gain access.
Today, biological arguments about the differences between mena nd women stem from three areas. List and describe those areas.
Evolutionary Theory (Social Biology) - The ideal that evolutionary theory can be applied to social behavior and natural selection.

Brain Research - Women's brains are smaller making them inferior. The argument to that is that women are smaller so the brain should be small. Today the argument is brain org. 2 levels of brain each specialize the thought now is that women use both and men only use one side. Explains why women can talk about thier emotions.

Endocronology (Hormone REsearch)- Testosterone and Estrogene Tells us that people with more test are more agressive.
How, according to Judith Lorber, does Biology as a field justify existing inequalities? Cite specific examples from the article.
One most prominent way is that we only see two sexes male and female (because the genittal is made up of the same tissue) so that infants that are born with ambigious genitial if the penis was small the baby was classified as a girl if big then a boy.

In sports where it is divided between men and women. chromosones are used to determine in which category the athlete is to compete.
Feminist sociologist assert that sociology as a field has practiced sexism in three ways. List and describe those three ways?
Most studies were conducted by men on men, but genearlized to both men and women

Gender was considered an important category only in a full subfields

When women were studied the studies were analyzed in terms of a male standard
List and describe the three categories of femnism as outlined by Judith Lorber. Which do you most agree with and why?
Gender Reform Feminist - There goal is for women to have same opportunities as men. (Liberal - Legal Rights, Marxist Gay employment, Development gaining equality in devleoping countries.

Gender Resistance Feminst - They advocate for separate womeon only communities, ex are radical feminist and lesbian feminist.

Gender Rebellion - focus on interaltionship among inequalities Gender and inequality is just one piece of a complext system.
Briefly describe the three societies studied by Margaret Mead. What does her research tell us about gender?
Arapesh - Both men and women display They are equal in thier parenting and caregiving. Sex was not important

Mundugumor - Both men and women developed aggressively, sex driven, maternal instincts were minimal.

Tschambuli - The women was dominant the male was passive.

that because these tribes are successful in thier own right and that the typical pattern behavior does not exist then you can not link this any longer to femine, masculine.
Describe the important points in the Doing Gender article. What are its most important contributions? Why do you believe it is considered a classic work in sociology?
Gender is not something we have but something we do.

When we interact with each other we take on either a femine or masculine role.

Genitalia is hidden but yet we continue to look at the world in two sexes male and female.

Boys are stronger, bigger, girls are smaller weaker.

Division of Labor