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11 Cards in this Set

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Heredity or environment?
Limits of certain physical and mental abilities are established by heredity (such as the ability at sports and aptitude for math), while such basic orientations to life as attitudes are a result of the environment
Oskar and Jack (Identical Twins)
Personality consists of 3 elements:
1. The Id: inborn, self-centered desires that cause us to seek self-gratification. The pleasure seeking id operates throughout life. It demands the immediate fulfillment of basic needs: attention, food, safety, sex,....
2. The ego: balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it. It also serves to balance the id and the superego (conscience)
3. The superego: commonly called the conscience, represents culture within us, the norms and values we have internalized from our social groups. As the moral component of the personality, the superego provokes feelings of guilt or shame when we break social rules or pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them
Freud and Personality development
Society uses gender socialization by expecting different attitudes and behavior from us because we are male or female
The human group nudges boys and girls in separate directions
Parents teach children their role in this symbolic division of the world
Mothers subconsciously reward their daughters for being passive and dependent, and their sons for being active and independent
Socialization into gender
On prime time telivision, male characters outnumber female characters. They are also more likely to be portrayed in higher status positions. Sports news don't cover women sports as much as they do male sports. When they do, they're sometimes trivialized by male newscasters.
Changing images of women in mass media
Learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match their new situation in life. Each time we learn something contrary to our previous experiences.
People and groups that influence our orientations to life, our self concept, emotions, attitudes and behavior
1. Family: family's social class
-Working class parents: concerned with kids staying out of trouble. Use physical punishment
-Middle class Parents: focus more on developing their child's curiosity, self expression and self control. More likely reason with children than punish
2. The Neighborhood
Children from poor neighborhoods are more likely to get in trouble with the law, to become pregnant, to drop out of school, even to have worse mental health in later life
residents of more affluent neighborhoods watch out for children more than do the residents of poor neighborhoods
3. Religion:
By influencing values, religion becomes a key component in people's ideas of right and wrong. 65% Americans belong to a church
4. Day Care: children who spend more hours in a daycare have weaker bonds with their mothers. They are also more likely to be mean, cruel or fight
5. The School and Peer Groups
Entry to school is a significant step in this transfer and learning of new values. It is impossible to go against a peer group-it is either conformity or rejection
6. The workplace: Anticipatory socialization, learning to play a role before entering it (internships, reading research, jobs)
work becomes part of your self concept. You are likely to include your job in your self description
Agents of socialization
A place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials who are in charge (boot camps, prisons, concentration camps, convents, boarding schools)
Total institutions
Nobody is an individual "I is gone" They are a team, a Marine, not a civilian. New society
Boot camp as a total institution
Process by which our sense of self develops.
3 Elements:
1. We imagine how we appear to those around us
2. We interpret others' reactions
3. We develop a self-concept
Self is a process that is on-going
Looking-Glass Self
Humans are born with no natural language, for these children and others are unable to speak
One characteristic that we take for granted as being a basic "human" -high intelligence, depends on early close relations with other humans
-early interaction with other humans is necessary to establish intelligence and the ability to experience close bonds with others
Isolated and institutionalized children
to develop high intelligence and the ability to be social and follow social norms, there is a period prior to age 13 in which children must develop language and human bonding
An attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place (finger printing, photographing, shaving, banning individual's personal identity kit)
Degradation Ceremony