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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Family?
is a unit comprising two or more people who share a residence and have legal or moral responsibility for long term care for each other. (the share of sex, care of children, and some of recreation)
What is Family of Orientation?
In most Western societies, individuals are born and raised in the family of orientation, which consists of our parent(s) and possibly our sibling(s).
What is Family Procreation?
the transmission of values, beliefs and attitudes from our family of orientation to our family of procreation preserves and stabilizes the family system. (the family that they create)
Two Symbolic Interaction Theory dealing with Family: Through socialization (Micro level)
Social construction of reality and the definition of situation. (What we define is real or as normal is shaped by what significant others around us accept as ordinary or acceptable)
One of the great challenges of newlyweds is meshing their ideas about
division of labor, family holidays, discipline of children, spousal relations and economic necessities, along with their assumptions about being in a committed relationship.
What is do family?
We not only learn family patterns through interaction in a social structure; we do family in the sense that we create roles and relationship and pass them on to others as normal.
What is the family legal code in U.S?
The duties of husband and wife, if those who do not fulfill these duties may be in neglect of duty. And these family roles are embedded in the larger structure in ways that many people do not realize.
Rational choice theory asserts that individuals
evaluate the costs and rewards of engaging in interaction in the family role.
The mate selection process shaped by calculation of exchange, as the rational choice theory contends (Micro level)
people estimate their own assets: physical, intellectual, social and economic, to try finding the best deal they can make.
Structural functionalist theory points out the common purposes of family institutions in every society
are to satisfy similar needs or functions in that social group.
Why do societies have family? (Functionalist theory)
Families fulfill certain purposes, or functions for societies that enhance survival of individuals and societies.
What is the six ways that family help stabilize society: (Functionalist Theory)
There are sexual regulation, reproduction and replacement, socialization, emotional support and protection, status assignment, and economic support.
In some places, such as New Guinea, procreation is so important that a young girl who has had children is more desirable because she has established her fertility. And is function is relate to as---
reproduction and replacement.
In global South, where mothers often must work or carry water for the family from distant water sources. And the sisters in the family must cares for her younger sister in Soweto, South African. In view of such, what is this function consider as
emotional support and protection, as part of the socialization for younger siblings.
What is the Agricultural society?
are often large and self-sufficient, producing their own food and providing their own shelter.
In 1800 and 1900, Europe and U.S Industrialization and urbanization
which create distinct in role change in family, the wife and children become dependent of the husband who brought home the bread. Family become consumer than independent. Families moved to urban area. The tradition care and protection has been partially replaced by police, reform school, unemployment compensation, Social Security, health care systems, and other types of service provided by the state.
Conflict theory argue that conflict in families is natural and inevitable
it result from the struggle for power and control in the family unit and in the society at large. As long as there is an unequal allocation of resources, conflict will arise.
For conflict theorists, there is no assumption of a harmonious family
And the social world of family is characterized more by tension and power plays than social accord.
Feminist theory focus on
the ways women construct their reality, their opportunities, and their place in the community.
Friedrich Engels (conflict theorist) argued as female role in family
that patterns of patriarchy and dominance lead to inequalities for women, and the family was the chief source of female oppression and that until basic resources were reallocated in the family, women would continue to be oppressed.
According to feminist theorist, by change in the patriarchal family structure, education and employment opportunities for women, and child care availability
can lead to greater freedom of choice, equality and autonomy for women.
In the social world, the global trend toward the Global North model of Industrialization and urbanization is
altering cultures around the world and changing family life.
Culture rules, meso and macro level expectation
it governs the choice of a mate in any society.
What is the culture norm of Exogamy? And the most universal form of exogamy is incest taboo which half of the U.S states forbid first cousins to marry.
is a norm that requires individuals to marry outside of their own immediate group. (ties with outside group for survival)
What is culture norm of Endogamy?
requires individual to marry inside certain boundaries. In effort of encourage group bonding. Individual is to select mates of the same race, religion, social class, ethnic background, or clan. (William et al. 2009)
What are the endogamous religious group in some societies?
Armenian Iranians, Orthodox Jews, Old order Amish, Jehovah's witnesses and Parsi of India. Which prohibit member to marry outside of their social group.
When a individual choose a mate with similar social characteristics, place of residence, educational background, political philosophy, moral values, and psychological traits is called
Homogamy (In U.S, close to 80% to 90% marry people with similar religious values).
In U.S involve a spouse from a different race or ethnic group is 14.6% (Inniss 2010)
and a close relative in a mix-race marriage is one in five persons.
Asian women are more likely to marry outside the group than Asian men
Data confirmed that 40% of Asian women married whites.
For Orthodox Hasidic Jews, marriage to a Reform Jew is
exogamy and strictly forbidden.
What is arranged marriage?
It involve a pattern of mate selection in which someone other than the couple (elder males, parents, a matchmaker) selects the martial partners.
What is Free-choice marriage?
In western society, the partner's selection that involve in romance, love, and individualism.
Why is Industrial and Postindustrial societies tend to have high marriage rates, low fertility rates and high divorce rates? (Levine et al. 1995)
As the world become more westernized, many Industrialized and Post-industrialized societies become to value love and individualism is the source mate selections through the free-choice marriage.
What is the connection of 86% of U.S college students have that they claimed they would not marry without love (the figure is being higher for men than women)?
Couples in U.S. tend to put more emphasis on romance love and process of attracting a mate than most other societies. Because it focus on individualism.
What is the three stages of mate selection theories which view dating as a process? And this process can be seen as "filtering system".
Stimulus (is simply knowing if other person is interest in us), value comparison (compatibility), and roles and needs ( on common interests).
What is patriarchy and matriarchy?
Patriarchy is related to male authority and matriarchy is related to female authority. And as egalitarianism or egalitarian is related to authority and decision making are shared between spouse and perhaps children are emerging, but they are not yet a reality in most households.
What theory tried to explain power relations by arguing that the spouse with the greater resources (education, occupational prestige and income) has most power?
Resource theory, in many societies, income is the most important factor because it represents identity and power.
Second shift is
a term coined (invented) by Hochschlid (1989), refers to the housework and child care that employed women do after their first-shift jobs.
U. S women spent average of 12 hours on child care per week, And the men spent less than that (average of 6 hours)---
while women spent 20 hours on housework per week and the men spent 10 hours. (Newman 2009)
Women are generally economically dependent on men
while men are often dependent on women emotionally.
The family as an institution
in the larger social system which it does vary in interesting ways from one society to another.
What is the form of marriage that refers to as Monogamy?
Marriage of two individuals.
What is the form of marriage that refers to as Polygamy?
in which a man or woman has more than one spouse. (often find in agricultural societies), and polygyny is a husband having more than one wife while polyandry is a wife having more than one husband (is practiced in less than 1% of the world societies)
What is serial monogamy?
In western societies, is the practice of variation of polygamy.
Extend family includes
two or more adult generations that share tasks and living quarters.
Nuclear family consists of
two parents and their children (or any two or the three) are becoming more common.
What is Cohabitation?
Living together in a sexual relationship without marriage. Two thirds of married couples lived together for an average of two years before marriage. (Jayson 2005 b)
What are the reasons that many heterosexual couples decide to cohabit? (cohabitation)
Rejection of superficial dating games, a desire to enter more meaningful relationship, emotional satisfaction and reduced loneliness, a chance to clarify what individuals want in a relationship before permanent commitment, financial benefit of sharing a living quarters, and sexual gratification and protection against disease.
Denmark is the first country to recognize same-sex unions in 1989
which it granting legal rights to homosexual couples.
In the nineteenth century, the average length of a marriage was only 13 years
and most because the life expectancy was so short. As is today average life expectancy is in the late 70's (Coontz 2005)
In U.S. half of all marriages end in divorce today
The divorce rate has been dropping since the 1980's. The marriage contracted this year will end in divorce before one partner dies has been estimated to be between "40 to 45%".
After divorce, the woman's standard of living plummets (drops) by 73% while that the man's improves by 42% while the recent data
determined that the women's loss was 27% while the man's gain was 10%. And the difference of the gender gap is real and seems not to have narrowed much in recent decades.
Men usually initiate divorce proceedings in the marriage is a misconception
while two-third of all divorces are initiated by women. one recent study found that many of the reasons for this have to do with the nature of our divorce laws. And due to the fact that men are more likely to have problems with drinking, drug abuse, and infidelity.
What is one of the major causes of divorce In the Macro-level social issues?
Abuse is one of the major causes of divorce.
In state California (1970), was the first to initiate no-fault divorce
wherein a couple could end a marriage without proving that the other person was in breach of contract.
What is a bilateral no-fault divorce ( sometimes called dissolution)?
It requires both parties to agree that they want out of the marriage. If they agree to the terms of settlement, the marriage can be dissolved.
What is Unilateral divorce?
It allows one person to insist that the marriage features irreconcilable differences, and the two do not have to agree. (Many women feel this arrangement protects vulnerable women from staying in an unloving or abusive relationship.
Some critics believe with the ease of no-fault divorce laws have leaded to what called
divorce culture. A society in which people assume that marriages are fragile rather than assuming that marriage are for life (a marriage culture).
In U.S, the highest divorce rates are for women in their teens and men between 20 and 24
while the rate of divorce has leveled off and even dropped since the U.S. high mark in 1981 (5.3).
Adjustment to divorced status can be vary by gender, why is that divorced men typically have a harder time emotionally adjusting to single-hood or divorce than women?
because divorced men often leave not only their wives but also their children, and whereas many women have support networks, while fewer men have developed or sustained friendships outside of marriage.