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55 Cards in this Set

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fixation
the partial or complete arrest of personality development at one of the psychosexual stages (defense mechanism; psychoanalytic psychotherapy)
rationalization
an individual explains or justifies an action or thought to make it acceptable when it is unacceptable at a deeper psychological level (defense mechanism; psychoanalytic psychotherapy)
sublimation
desires and instinctive drives that are consciously intolerable and cannot be directly realized are diverted into creative activities that are acceptable to the individual and society (defense mechanism; psychoanalytic psychotherapy)
displacement
transfers certain thoughts, feelings, and wishes onto other thoughts, feelings or wishes that are more desirable and tolerable (defense mechanism; psychoanalytic psychotherapy)
repression
individual unconsciously pushes certain unacceptable memories, ideas, and desires from the consciousness (defense mechanism; psychoanalytic psychotherapy)
abandonment
For social workers, the term usually refers to premature termination of services or being unavailable to a client when needed.
absolute confidentiality
a position held by some professionals that no information about a client shall be disclosed to others, regardless of the circumstances. The social worker who practices this position would not put the information obtained from a client into any written form-for example a case record or a computer file-or discuss it with colleagues or supervisors. Most social workers believe that absolute confidentiality is impractical and that relative confidentiality is ethical and more productive.
abulia
apathy; lack of motivation, indifference to the consequences of any actions, adn indecisiveness.
academic skills disorder
a term formerly used by professionals for learning disorder
acceptance
recognition of a person's positive worth as a human being without necessarily condoning the person's actions. In social work, it is considered one of the fundamental elements in the helping relationship.
acclimatization
biological and psychosocial adjustment to living in a new environment
acrasia
the inability or limited ability to control one's own impulses
acrophobia
the pathological fear of high places or of being in the air
action therapy
treatment procedures and intervention strategies based on direct alterations fo behaviors or of obstacles to change. Such therapies include behavior modification, some cognitive therapy methods, and experiential therapy. The term "action therapy" is often used to make a distinction from so-called informational therapy, which is oriented toward helping clients gain knowledge and insight and other forms of self-awareness that foster changes indirectly.
activity catharsis
a psychotherapeutic procedure in which the client portrays anxiety and the effects of unconscious material through actions rather than words. The procedure is used primarily in group psychotherapy.
activity group
a form of group involvement, which may or may not have a specifically designed therapeutic process, in which the participants work on programs of mutual interest. The members engage in activities as diverse as cooking, folk singing, carpentry, or crafts.
acute
intense conditions or disturbances of relatively short duration. For example, a mental disorder lasting fewer than six months often is considered to be acute, and one lasting more than six months is considered chronic.
adaptive spiral
in social group work and group psychotherapy, the successfully integrated, healthy progression of the client from interpersonal distortions and their resulting anxiety and social inhibition to the formation of rewarding relationships within the group and then outside. As the client's interpersonal relationships on the outside become healthier, the relationships within the group become healthier, too.
additive effect
the impact on a substance abuser of two or more drugs that, taken simultaneously, result in greater or different responses than if taken separately.
additive empathy
the interviewer's process of drawing out the inner and more-hidden feelings of the client with interpretation and questions about underlying emotions and experiences (for example, "perhaps you're feeling this way becuase. . ."). Additive empathy is used sparingly until a sound social worker-client relationship is established, and only when clients are engaged in self-exploration. Additive empathy responses are made only in relations to the client's current awareness and experience and presented tentatively rather than authoritatively. To minimize client resistence, the social work interviewer avoids making several additive empathic responses in succession and retreats or acknowledges error if the clietn indicates a need to avoid the information.
adjuvant therapy
a supplementary intervention to improve or extend the effect of the primary therapy. the term is often used in conjunction with cancer therapy, but also applies to psychosocial treatment.
adlerian theory
the concepts about human personality and psychosocial therapy developed by Austrian pschiatrist Alfred Adler. He hypothesized that humans have an inherent drive for power and strive from feeling inferior toward superiority and perfection. The individual does this through one's lifestyle. People achieve goals by developing their social interests, and healthy people ultimately learn to place the good of society over immediate personal gain.
advice giving
an intervention in social work in which the social worker helps the client to recognize and understand the existence of a problem or goal and to consider the various responses that might be made to deal with it. The social worker then recommends the best strategies to accomplish the objectives.
affect
an individual's expression of mood, temperament, and feelings; an individual's overt emotional state.
affective congruency
feelings that are consistent with those of most other people about the same thing. For example, a social worker who is distressed at seeing an abused child has affective congruency with most other people.
affective disorder
emotional disturbances characterized primarily by chronic or episodic changes of mood, such as depression, euphoria, or mania. This term has been replaced by the term mood disorder.
agnosia
the inability to comprehend familiar objects that are being perceived by the sense organs. This may be a partial or total inability to attach meaning to the input from one or more of the five senses. For example, in visual agnosia, the individual takes in all the normal light sensations in the visual field but cannot decipher or process this information to recognize or interpret what is being seen. This condition is often the result of brain damage, especially to the cortex, often the result of stroke.
agoraphobia
an irrational and persisten fear of being in unfamiliar places or of leaving one's home. Most people with this condition make special efforts to avoid crowded rooms, public transportation facilities, tunnels, and other environments from which escape seems difficult and where help is unavailable.
akathisia
a sustained pattern of fidgety movements, such as swinging of the legs, rocking, tapping the feet or hands, pacing, and being unable to remain in a position for long. This pattern can be a symptom of anxiety, psychosis, substance abuse, or a medication-induced movement disorder. The term is also properly spelled akathesia.
akinesia
reduced or minimal motor movements.
alcohol hallucinosis
imaginary perceptions that occur after a person with an alcohol dependence problem has stopped or reduced the consumption of alcohol. The most common type of hallucination is auditory. the disorder most frequently lasts a few hours or days and rarely more than a week.
alexia
a reading disability that begins during adulthood and is usually brought about by head injury, stroke, or some other abnormality in the central nervous system.
alexithymia
inability to recognize or describe one's own emotions, often associated with mental disorders that impede healthy cognitive functioning.
algophobia
the pathological fear of pain
allocentric
an orientation to the thoughts, feelings, values, and customs of others rather than oneself (the opposite of egocentric).
alogia
poverty of thinking as manifested by restricted speech consisting mostly of short, concrete, repetitive, and stereotyped replies lacking in spontaneity or information
amotivational syndrome
a pattern of behavior often found in patients who have exhibited extensive substance dependence in which there seems to be cooperation and little resistance to the interventio process but also little effort or interest expended toward resolution of either substance abuse or other social and emotional problems.
amphetamine
a drug that stimulates the cerebral cortex, tends to increase one's mental alertness temporarily, produces a sense of euphoria and well-being, and reduces fatigue. Commonly known as "bennies," "uppers" and "speed," amphetamines are addictive and usually require increasingly large doses as tolerance develops.
anal personality
a descriptive term from psychoanalytic theory, referring to an individual who is excessively fastidious, miserly, rigid, and compulsively obsessed with orderliness; also known as anal character
analysand
one who is being pschoanalyzed
analysis of variance (ANOVA)
a statistical procedure commonly used in social work research for determining the extent to which two or more groups differ significantly when one is exposed to a dependent variable
anancastic
a behavior pattern in which the individual is compulsive-that is, obsessed with rules, is emotionally constricted and intolerant, and perfectionistic.
anhedonia
an emotional state in which the individual lacks the full capacity to experience pleasure in situations that seem pleasurable to most others. It is a symptom frequently seen in clients with depression.
anima
in the psychoanalytic theory of Carl Jung, the feminine aspect of a male's personality. The male inherits this feminine archetype from the accumulated experiences of men as they have related to women through the ages.
animus
in the psychoanalytic theory of Carl Jung, the masculine aspect of a female's personality.
anosmia
the partial or complete absense of the sense of smell that is the result of injury, illness, or genetic problem.
anosognosia
unawareness of one's own mental or physical illness.
antabuse
trade name for disulbiram, a drug that induces nausia when in the bloodstream of an individual who ingests alcohol. It is used to facilitate aversion therapy in the treatment of alcoholism.
anticathexis
in Freudian theory, teh psychic energy the individual uses to keep repressed material in the unconscious. This term is not synonymous with decathexis.
aphasia
the inability to use previously possessed language skills.
aphephobia
the abnormal fear of being touched
aphonia
loss of ability to speak normally as a result of phsysiological or emotional disorders
apraxia
the inability to perform purposeful movements, which usually is related to lesions in the motor area of one cortex rather than paralysis or dysfunctioning senses
attachment theory
concepts developed in the 1970's by Ainsworth, Bowlby, and others about the stages through which young children progress in their development of social relationships and teh influence of this development on personality characteristics in later life. In four sequential stages toward social attachment, the healthy young child exhibits characteristic behaviors: at birth to age three months, the infance maintains closeness with the caregiver through sucking, grasping, visual tracking, and cuddling. From age three to six months, the infant becomes more responsive to familiar people and discomforted by others (stranger anxiety). At age six months to toddler age, the infanct seeks contact and closeness with the object of attachment and experiences discomfort (separation anxiety disorder of childhood) when the object is missing. Beyond toddler age, the child uses a wide variety of behaviors to influence teh actions of the object of attachment to meet the child's needs for closeness. In this development, three general patterns of attachment occur: secure attachment, avoidanct attachment, and resistant attachment.
avolition
loss of willingness or ability to pursue goals