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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are universal behaviors that extend throughout all cultures
Need for food
Procreation
Emotions
Social behaviors
What is Culture
Enduring Behaviors, attitudes, ideas and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed down through the generations
In what country is public disapproval of friends not accepted?
Japan
What are universal norms for friendship?
Maintaining eye contact
Keeping secrets
respecting privacy
What are the five universal social beliefs and worldviews? Proposed by Lead and Bonds
-Cynicism
-Social Complexity (act according to circumstance)
-Reward for application (try hard and be rewarded)
-Spirituality
-Fate Control
Roger Brown stated one other Universal Norm concerning status
Status Hierarchies
What type of roles can be easily broken and not matter?
Lesser Norms, such as painter versus mother role
Affluence, Mobility, Urbanism and Mass Media contribute to create what type of culture?
Individualistic
Individualistic Economy and Collectivist Morals are part of what political group?
Conservative
Collective Economies and Individualist Morals are part of what political group?
Liberal
What kind of self talk boosts self esteem in collectivist cultures and individualistic cultures? (2 answers)
I cannot fail, I must meet expectation of others (Collectivist)

I must succeed, I am special (Individualistic)
Define Holistic Reasoning
Emphasis on the consideration of balancing all influencing forces into harmony
Define Analytic reasoning
Rules, logic and use of contradicting statements as untrue to prove ones point
When making decisions that are opposite to ones cultural standards, what kind of cognitive process occurs?
Cognitive Dissonance
How do collectivist cultures observe ambiguous faces in relation to their own?
They tend to see the opposite emotion.
What kind of persuasion message must one incorporate for Individualistic cultures and Collectivist cultures?
Collectivist: Group Values
Individualistic: Personal Success
What types of cultures do Aggression arise in?
Those with a need for honor or a frontier spirit (We came and conquered this land and therefore must protect it)
Three methods to promote Multiculturalism?
Contact with the other
Cooperation with other toward a superordinate goal
Generalizing positive attitude to entire other group identity
In what circumstances will bicultural identity create positive self esteem?
When the "other" culture is seen as inviting.
What is additive and subtractive bilingualism and when do they happen?
Additive Bilingualism: When the 2nd language has a positive effect. This happens when mother culture has a solid foundation on identity and is not threatened by second culture
Subtractive Bilingualism: when the 2nd language has a negative affect on the individual. Occurs when the initial language is threatened or not solidly formed.
Describe the three ways the cultural environment and a persons biology interact? (Explaining for diverse cultures)
Situations affect different people differently
People choose their situations
People create their situations