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86 Cards in this Set

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conformity

A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.
informational social influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior; we conform because we believe that others' interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action.
private acceptance
Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right.
public compliance
Conforming to other people's behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what the other people are doing or saying.
contagion
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd.
mass psychogenic illness
The occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause.
social norms
The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values and beliefs of its members.
normative social influence
The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group's beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors.
social impact theory
The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group's importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group.
idiosyncrasy credits
The tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if enough of this is earned, the person can, on occasion, behave deviantly without retribution from the group.
minority influence
The case where a minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority.
injunctive norms
People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others.
descriptive norms
People's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others.
Chameleon effect
What is the term for the confederate's behavior in the following study. The confederate copies the participant's behavior -> the participants like the confederate significantly more when the confederate copied the participant.
conformity
A change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of others
compliance
Yielding to a direct, explicit appeal meant to produce certain behavior or agreement to a particular point of view
obedience
A special kind of compliance, where there is a change in behavior due to commands of others. There is a demand from authority.
obedience
Out of conformity, compliance and obedience, which is a response to the most direct social influence?
conformity
Out of conformity, compliance and obedience, which is a response to the most indirect social influence?
Sherif
Two key studies related to conformity, obedience and compliance were done by Asch and Sherif. Which one had the floating dot on a screen in a dark room? In this instance, the situation was ambiguous for the participant [Asch/Sherif].
Asch
Two key studies related to conformity, obedience and compliance were done by Asch and Sherif. Which one involved judging the length of a line? In this instance, the situation was obvious for the participant
37
Across all trials of Asch's study in which participants judging line length in company of confederates who judged wrongly, what % of the cases did people conform with the wrong answer given by others?
76
In Asch's study of judging line length, what % of participants conformed at least once with the wrong answer given by others in the trials?
informational social influence
Why do we conform?: 1) ____________, 2) normative social influence
normative social influence
Why do we conform?: 1) informational social influence, 2) ____________
private
informational social influence leads to [private/public] acceptance
public
normative social influence leads to [private/public] acceptance
normative
[normative/informational] social influence leads to public acceptance
informational
[normative/informational] social influence leads to private acceptance
group size
Variables affecting conformity: 1) ____________, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
group unanimity
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) ____________, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
group cohesiveness
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) ____________, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
gender
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) ____________, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
age
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) ____________, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
task or issue importance
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) ____________, 7) culture, 8) minority influence.
culture
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) ____________, 8) minority influence.
minority influence
Variables affecting conformity: 1) group size, 2) group unanimity, 3) group cohesiveness, 4) gender, 5) age, 6) task or issue importance, 7) culture, 8) ____________.
3-5
Conformity increases with group size up to a group size of _____
distinct others
Law of diminishing returns in conformity. Milgram found that people didn't see individual people looking up, but they saw a big group looking up. What matters is how many ______
two groups of three, one group of six
Wilder found in studying conformity that ________ are more influential than_________.
reduces
Having an ally or seeing a rebel dramatically [increases/reduces] conformity pressures.
confidence in the group
Including one in the group of accomplices reduces _______, so people seeking to be accurate will continue looking further beyond the group answer.
cohesive
Conformity studies found that the more time the group spends together, the more ______ the group, the more people conform
weak and unreliable
Sex differences in conformity: 1) In general, sex differences are________. 2) Conformity is affected by how familiar you are with the issue at hand, not your gender, 3) small sex differences do emerge in face-to-face encounters: women conform more, men conform less when they think they are being observed.
how familiar you are with the issue at hand
Sex differences in conformity: 1) In general, sex differences are weak and unreliable. 2) Conformity is affected by ________, not your gender, 3) small sex differences do emerge in face-to-face encounters: women conform more, men conform less when they think they are being observed.
women conform more, men conform less
Sex differences in conformity: 1) In general, sex differences are weak and unreliable. 2) Conformity is affected by how familiar you are with the issue at hand, not your gender, 3) small sex differences do emerge in face-to-face encounters: ________ when they think they are being observed.
they think they are being observed
Sex differences in conformity: 1) In general, sex differences are weak and unreliable. 2) Conformity is affected by how familiar you are with the issue at hand, not your gender, 3) small sex differences do emerge in face-to-face encounters: women conform more, men conform less when ________ .
more vulnerable (to the group)
Age differences in conformity: generally, young adolescents are ____________ and older people (63 to 85 years) conform less
conform less
Age differences in conformity: generally, young adolescents are more vulnerable (to the group) and older people (63 to 85 years) ____________
lower, reduce
The influence of task difficulty on conformity: When the task difficulty is_____, incentives for accuracy ______ conformity;
higher, increase
The influence of task difficulty on conformity: when task difficulty is______, incentives for accuracy ______conformity.
difficulty, importance
The influence of task difficulty on conformity: there is an interaction between task _________ and task ________.
normative pressures
Minority influence on conformity: because of their power and control, majorities elicit public compliance through _______ .
private acceptance
Minority influence on conformity: because they are seen as seriously committed to their views, minorities produce compliance through _________.
power and control
Minority influence on conformity: because of their _______, majorities elicit public compliance through normative pressures.
seriously committed to their views
Minority influence on conformity: because they are seen as _________, minorities produce compliance through private acceptance.
reciprocity
A compliance principle in which there is a powerful motive to conform is strong feelings of obligation to repay.
reciprocity
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they offer free gifts or samples?
reciprocity - door in the face
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they make a large request and the offer a smaller request?
reciprocity - door in the face
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they offer a special concessional price?
reciprocity - that's not all
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they make an inflated request but, before the buy answers yes or no, they sweeten the deal?
door in your face, that's not all
What are the two sales techniques that use the reciprocity principle to enforce compliance?
autokinetic effect
Phenomenon of human visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move
reciprocity
Two compliance principles used by marketers: 1) _________, 2) commitment & consistency.
commitment & consistency
Two compliance principles used by marketers: 1) reciprocity, 2) _________.
commitment consistency - foot-in-the-door
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they start with a small request, then move on to a larger request.
commitment consistency - low balling
Sales people often use what compliance principle to increase sales when they get compliance on a low-cost request and later reveal hidden additional costs.
how high would people go
What were the two main questions Milgram wanted to answer? 1) __________? 2) would anyone go all the way?
would anyone go all the way
What were the two main questions Milgram wanted to answer? 1) how high would people go? 2) __________?
65
In Milgram's study, _____ % went all the way to the end (lethal)
less
What effect does the immediacy of the victim (ie in the same room) have on obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
increased
What effect does the immediacy of authority (ie in the same room) have on obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
increased
What effect does gradually increasing concessions (increases in electricity) have on obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
increased
What effect does the ability to pass on responsibility (eg executioners) have on obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
no difference
What effect does the gender of the person have on their obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
increased
What effect does prestigious environment have on a person's obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
increased
What effect does the salience of the authority figure (e.g. wearing a lab coat) have on a person's obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
less
What effect does the salience of rebellious models have on a person's obedience to authority in applying electric shocks to victims?
immediacy of victim
Variables affecting obedience: 1) __________, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
immediacy of authority
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) __________, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
gradually increasing concessions
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) __________, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
pass on responsibility
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) __________, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
gender
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) __________, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
prestige of circumstances
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) __________, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) rebellious models.
salience of authority figure
Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) __________, 8) rebellious models.
rebellious models

Variables affecting obedience: 1) immediacy of victim, 2) immediacy of authority, 3) gradually increasing concessions, 4) pass on responsibility, 5) gender, 6) prestige of circumstances, 7) salience of authority figure, 8) __________.