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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

4 things Freud drew attention to in Social Psychology

Unconscious study

Sexuality study

Developmental aspects of personality


The 3 sub-systems involved with unconscious conflict


Contains the immediate need for pleasure

(i.e. eating, drinking, sleeping)


Tries to satisfy the ID pragmatically in accordance to social normalities


Acts as a moral policeman

If societal 'rules' are broken, it dishes out punishment

(e.g. anxiety, guilt)

Most powerful, always suppresses ID temporarily

5 defence mechanisms

Displacement: Impulses redirected to safer course

Rationalisation: Impulses break through into consciousness

Reaction formation: Original wish replaced with opposite

Projection: Urges projected onto others

Isolation: Awareness of memories, but not the emotions that match

Origins of unconscious conflicts

(As children grow older, pleasure is achieved through different body areas)

0-2: Oral

2-4: Anal

4-6: Phallic

6-12: Latency

12+: Genital

(Most important stage, according to Freud is phallic stage)

What is castration anxiety?

When a boy wants to sexually possess mother, hates father. He fears his father will find out and castrate him.

Eventually he gives up and decides to become like his dad.

What is the electra complex?

Girl realises she ain't got no willy

Fears she's already been castrated

Develops penis envy

Turns sexual attention to father, hates mother

Resolved by identifying with mother

Difficulties of unconscious conflict stages which can lead to later problems

Oral stage: Smoking, thumb-sucking

Anal stage: Won't spend money, obstinate (stubbornness)

Phallic stage: Castration anxiety, lead to homosexuality?

Problems with Freud

Concepts are basically metaphors

Never actually studied children

Little supporting evidence

Most evidence refutes completely

Data more appropriately explained through other processes

5 perspectives on Social Psychology

Cognitive: Emphasis on how our perception affects our behaviour

Learning: Emphasis on principles of reinforcement and imitation

Motivational: Emphasis on basic human needs

Emphasis on evolutionary past, and genetic disposition

Cultural: Emphasis on how culture affect social behaviour

4 levels of analysing Social Psychology

Intra-personal: What goes on inside the person

Inter-personal: Based on relations between 2 people

Inter-group: Based on group level behaviour

Societal level: Cultural effects on behaviour

3 components of an attitude




The Bogus Pipeline

A fake lie detector machine to receive true answers

Faranda et. al (1979) assessed attitudes towards women's rights, both men and women responded positively

When men were hooked up to the machine, they revealed their true attitudes, which were much less sympathetic

EMG (Electromyography)

Measured attitudes, then presented videos which either supported or disagreed with these attitudes

Facial muscles associated with happiness and anger, moved when video supported and disagreed with attitudes respectively.

The Lost Letter technique

Pretended to lost a stamped and addressed letter in large American cities

Number of letters returned served as an indicator of attitudes

Source of controversy - Lapiere 1934

Investigated relationship between racist attitudes and behaviour

Toured with chinese couple, was only rejected service once

92% of places said they WOULDN'T accomodate them

Kelley and Mirer 1974 - found strong relations between attitudes and behaviour

85% of people voted for presidents in their line with previous expressed attitudes

Theory of reasoned action

The intention to behave

The consequences of behaviour

Attitude resilience

We are not at the mercy of those who would seek to influence us

One way to avoid attitude change is the rehersal of a counter argument

Measurement of attributions (Heider 1985)

Internal <--------> External

Stable <----------> Unstable

Controllable <--------> Uncontrollable

Consequences of attributions

Couples in marital distress attribute their partners negative behaviours as internal characteristics

Frey and Rogner (1987) found that:

People who thought they were to blame for an accident spent 30 days in the hospital, whereas people who didn't think they were to blame only spent 20

Optimistic and Pessimistic attributional styles

Optimistic: Acceptance that both good and bad things happen in life, no point beating ones' self up over it

Pessimistic: Blames ones' self for the bad things that happen in life

How is Proximity and Propinquity linked?

Bond between people is relative to the living distance between them

Mere exposure effect

Robert Zajonc, found that repeated exposure to a stimulus makes it more appealing

Negative proximity

If the original interaction is negative, then the dislike will occur with repeated experiences

Dutton and Aaron (1974)

Emotional arousal linked to physical attractiveness

Electric shock anticipation study

Narrow bridge crossing study

Walster et. al

Found that the more attractive you are, the more you are liked by your blind date

Buss (1997)

90% of mean when approached by an attractive woman, would agree to sex

Only 10% of women when approached by an attractive man would agree

Benefits to attractiveness

Adults less aggressive to attractive children

More likely to be hired for jobs

More likely to receive better grades in school


Lonely people can feel distressed, bored and even depressed

An effective 'cure' is picking up a hobby, work, or studying

Those who were lonely due to negative characteristics such as shyness or unattractiveness found it more difficult to overcome

What is Social Facilitation?

How the physical presence of others influence our behaviour

Drive Theory of Facilitation

The presence of others leads to increased arousal

Arousal strengthens the display of our dominant response

Our performance is enhanced if our dominant response is appropriate. It is impaired if the response is inappropriate

Michaels et. al (1982) - Pool player's

Investigated accuracy in the presence of others.

Found that the accuracy of good players increased from 71% to 80%

Found that the accuracy of bad players decreased from 35% to 25%

Diffusion of Responsibility

Idea that as group size increases, individual responsibility decreases

Kitty Genovese - 38 people watched her struggle for 30 minutes before being murdered. None helped or reported to the police

Deindividuation theory

When people are surrounded by others they can lose self-awareness and feel anonymous

When aroused, the loss in self-awareness works to disinhibit the impulses which are normally kept under check

e.g. Masked revellers may drink to much,

Members of a lynch mob may resort to killing/torturing


A group of people is more likely to have an influence on others, as opposed to just one person


1 bonafide person in a group experiment, the rest confederates

Results showed that 75% of people went along with the majority, even when they were completely right

Obedience to Authority - Milgram

Each time the pupil made a mistake they were given a fake electric shock

Experimenter was made to finish the experiment even after the pupil complained of a heart attack then went silent

66% of people finished the experiment

What is prejudice?

A preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience (usually negative)

Authoritarian personaility

A personality type - overly respectful and polite to those in authority, whilst acting hostile to those perceived as inferior

Realistic Conflict Theory (RCT)

Attitudes and behaviour of members of an ingroup towards an outgroup will reflect the objective interests of the ingroup

2 implicit assumptions:

- If the interests of the groups coincide, then the relations between the groups will be harmonious

- If these is a conflict of interests, then the groups will be hostile

SHERIF'S field experiments

Boys aged 12 in a summer camp

Stage 1: Normal camp activities (bush walking, canoeing, etc.) - harmony between groups

Stage 2: Contested activities (tug of war, softball, etc.) - hostility between groups

Minimal Group Paradigm (MGP)

Attempt to make an 'empty environment', where variables would be added which would elicit discrimination

Social Identity Theory

Believes important part of ourselves is tied up in social groups

Assumes people are motivated to evaluate their selves positively

Comparisons in favour of the in-group and out-group lead to positive and negative self esteem respectively