• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mass sociogenic illness
This illness refers to a phenomenon that occurs in the absence of real biological symptoms and is spread rapidly among people in a group setting.
Give an example for mass sociogenic illness
Melbourne airport, 2005 where an employee of a news agency collapsed at the bottom of escalator.
What is social psychology?
the study of how people influence others' behaviour beliefs and attitudes- for both good and bad
What did Robin Dunbar's magical number of 150 refer to?
It refers to the amount of people that each of us knows reasonably well. It explains that our brains are predisposed to form intimate,large networks but only that large.
Explain Baumeister and Leary's "need to belong theory"!
We seek out social bonds when we can and suffer negative psychological and physical consequences when we cannot.
Explain the cyberball experiment!
Online, person plays computerized ball tossing game and at some point the other participants start tossing the game to only one another.
Possible consequences of the cyberball experiment...
...lowers self- esteem. Makes people feel dehumanized and activates the same brain region that becomes active during physical pain.
According to the evolutionary approach, are social influences negative?
No, social influence are selected naturally, because they serve us well over the course of evolution.
Which forms of social influences can become maladaptive when they are not being questionned?
Obedience, conformity- Therefore social influence must always be approached critically
Social facilitation
The presence of others improves our performance, it generally occurs on tasks we find easy to manage
Social disruption
The presence of others worsens our performance. Usually on tasks we find difficult.
process of assigning causes to behaviour
Why are attributions also called dispositional?
They refer to person's enduring tendencies, such as personality traits, attitudes or abilities.
fundamental attribution error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behaviour- e.g. the complimenting sales person must be nice and the sacking boss bad (we do not consider circumstances).
Are there cultural differences when it comes to the fundamental attribution error?
Yes, Japanese and Chinese cultures seem to be less prone than Western cultures.
Who imposed the social comparison theory?
Leon Festinger
What is the social comparison theory?
We evaluate our beliefs, abilities and reactions by comparing them with those of others.
Mass hysteria
the contagiously spread of irrational behaviour
collective delusions
people simultaneously become convinced of bizarre things that are false, e.g. UFO
Urban legends
False stories, repeated so many times that people believe they are true (especially associated with negative emotions)
We are especially unlikely to engage in social comparison when a situation is unambiguous. True/ False
What is conformity?
The tendency of people to change behaviour due to group pressure.
Who conducted the most famous conformity study in the 1950's?
Solomon Asch.
Did people conform in Asch's experiment?
Parametric studies
the independent variable is manipulated in different ways in order to measure the effects on the dependent variable.
What are the three independent variables that researchers found to influence the dependent variable (conformity)?
Unanimity (if one participant gave right answer, conformity dropped), difference in the wrong answer and size (conformity drops with increased size of participants)
Which parts of the brain are associated with conformity?
Amygdala (triggers anxiety in response to danger cues), parietal and occipital lobes (visual perception)
What is the autokinetic effect?
perceptual illusion, light projected on the wall in dark room, after a few moments light seems to move even though it is stationary --> autokinetic effects results from tiny movements from the eye muscle.
What were Sheriff's findings in the autokinetic effect experiment?
He found that when participants were together with other participants they would conform to the other answer. If initial estimation of light movement was 20 cm and the other participants said 50 cm, you would say 35cm in second session
the tendency of people to engage into uncharacteristic behaviour when they are stripped of their usual identities
What are consequences/ results of deindividuation? How does it influence the individual
feeling of anonymity, lack of responsibility as individual, vulnerable to social influences
Give an example for deindividuation in research!
Zimbardo, Stanford prison study, pao alto
Reicher and Haslam (BBC prison study) argued that participants in their study did not actually engage in their group. True/False
False, participants in their study actively identified with their group.
What conclusions can we make considering the results of Reicher and Haslam's study?
The groups we belong to gives us a certain identity, predictability and belonging and enable us to achieve shared goals and positive social change.
Does deindividuation automatically make us behave badly?
No, it makes us more likely to conform in whatever situation we are in. According to research, deindividuation makes people more likely to engage in prosocial and helping behaviour.
What was a real life example/scandal for deindividuation?
American soldiers torturing prisoners in Iraq
Why do crowds elicit irrational behaviour?
Crowds are more anonymous which allows individuals to act on their impulses
People in crowds normally limit their social interactions to minimise conflict. Give an example in everyday life.
Generally, people in crowded buses and lifts avoid staring at each other.
An emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking. Group agreement is so much of value that individuals stop evaluating issues objectively.
What are symptoms of groupthink? (Name at least 3)
invulnerability, illusion of groups unanimity, moral correctness, conformity pressure, stereotyping of the out group, self- censorship, mindguards ("Oh you think you know better than us?")
group polarisation
it is the tendency to strengthen the dominant view of individuals in a group discussion
groups of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause
How do cults promote group think?
persuasive leader, disconnecting group members from outside world, discouraging questioning of group members, establishing training that brainwashes members
Why do we believe that members of cults must be mentally ill?
Fundamental attribution error- we believe it is more their own traits rather than social influences
inoculation effect
Helps to resist indoctrination of cults. Gently introduce them why their belief seems to be correct but then debunking (refuting) these reasons.
adherence to instructions from those of higher authority
What is the most known experiment of obedience?
Milgram's paradigm
What did Milgram believe was the cause of aggression against other individuals in the past?
the unquestioning acceptance of authority
Psychiatrists thought that most participants would disobey in Milgram's experiment. However, 62% went all the way up to 450 V. What did psychiatrists not consider?
They underestimated the fundamental attribution error. Namely, that being in a certain situation can have major effects on an individual's action.
In parametic studies of Milgram's experiment, how could obedience be reduced? (Below 50%)
Proximity condition (learner and teacher are in the same room), touch proximity condition (teacher is required to hold learner's hand on shock plate), telephone condition (instructions from researcher over phone), second experimenter condition, less prestigious setting for study (original study was held in Yale university)
In which setting did almost all of the participants (93%) comply the full 450 V?
When teachers direct different person to administer shocks. (they feel less responsible)
What are typical bystander non- interventions in everyday life?
Sexual abuse, domestic violence, bullying
What are the two possible reasons for the bystander effect?
pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility
Pluralistic ignorance
error of assuming that no one in the group perceives things as we do. Looking around, no one reacts, maybe situation is not that severe
Diffusion of responsibility
the more people are present at an emergency, the less each person feels responsible for the negative consequences
Social loafing
phenomenon were people slack off in groups
Is brainstorming more efficient when in groups or when alone?
According to several studies, brainstorming for ideas seems to be more efficient when alone. Groups tend to come up with fewer and fewer good ones.
helping others for unselfish reasons
What was believed before altruism?
That we help others in discomfort because we enjoy the feeling of helping others and it makes us feel better- so for selfish reasons.
What is a crucial variable that increases the likelihood of helping others?
In which situations are people more likely to help others?
When they cannot easily escape the situation and run away (crowded train, than pavement), depending on the person in need (person with cane vs. drunk person), exposure to role models, and being in a good mood
enlightenment effect
learning about psychological research can change real- world behaviour for the better
Helping- are there individual differences?
Yes. Participants who are less concerned about social approval and are less traditional are more likely to help and intervene in emergencies.
is associated with the behaviour to harm others (physically or verbally)
In which situations are people most likely to express aggressive behaviour?
interpersonal provocation, frustration (when not achieving a goal), media influences (observational learning), aggressive cues (weapons), arousal (when autonomic nervous system is hyped up we may mistakenly attribute this arousal to anger), drugs, temperature (warm temperature make people losing their temper more easily).
What could be a cure for aggressive behaviour?
spotted hyena (also called the 'laughing hyena')
females are more aggressive than males
relational aggression
More commonly expressed by females (spreading rumours, gossiping)
Are there cultural differences in aggression? In which cultures?
Yes, Asian cultures seem to be less physically aggressive than Western societies.
Culture of honour
More present in the South of US than in North. Defending someone's reputation in case of perceived insults
conclusion regarding factual evidence
Is referred to as a belief with an emotional component, it is how you feel about an issue or person.
Can behaviour predict attitudes and vice verse?
Behaviour seems to predict attitudes but not vice verse.
What is a classical example for when attitudes do not predict behaviour?
R. LaPiere asking 128 hotel managers if they would serve Chinese hotel guests. 90% of participants said no. Yet, when LaPiere and the Chinese couple toured through the country 127/128 have served the couple.
When can attitudes predict behaviour?
Attitudes that are highly accessible (which come to mind easily), tend to strongly predict behaviour (e.g. asking for chocolate ice cream, leads to wanting chocolate ice cream), and for people with low self monitoring
What is self- monitoring?
personality trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviour reflects their true feelings and attitudes.
Attitudes are shaped by....
Something we have heard many times makes us more likely to believe it.
Recognition heuristic
Who makes a lot of use of this heuristic?
When messages are delivered by phony authority figures, we have to avoid....
maladaptive gullibility (Leichtglaeubigkeit)
What is the implicit egotism effect?
If the messenger sending the message seems similar to us. We react more positively towards people, things that resemble us.
Name- letter effect
Tendency towards objects and people with similar letters to name.
Cognitive dissonance theory
unpleasant mental state we experiences when stuck between two conflicting thoughts.
How does cognitive disonance theory explain the change of attitudes?
we either eliminate one of the attitudes or believes or come up with a third better thought.
You know sue is really nice but you also know she recently stole a wallet, you are in cognitive disonance because...
It creates a conflict between the two thoughts.
Who introduced the cognitive disonance theory?
Leon Festinger
What is a real life example?
The cult and Mrs. Kelch waiting for UFOs to come on December 21. Cognitive dissonance made individuals believe even more in theory because they think their prayers have been heard and god saves us from UFOs.
Why does the cognitive dissonance theory apply more to participants who have been given $20 than those who received $1 only in Leon Feistinger's experiment?
Because people who have been given $20 can say they have been bribed which is an external justification whereas $1 is not enough to be an external justification. They have to convince themselves that they enjoyed the task.
self- perception theory
we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviours. This suggests participants believe they must have liked the taks since they told the other participant and they only got paid $1.
impression management theory
We don't necessarily change our mind about the task but we tell the researcher and the participant since we don't want to sound inconsistent with our responses.
What is the dual process model of persuasion?
It involves two ways of influencing others: Central route and peripheral route
The peripheral route allows us to evaluate persuasive routes carefully and thoughtfully. True/False
False- The peripheral route leads us to respond to persuasive arguments on the basis of snap judgements, e.g. influenced by good looks
Foot- in- the- door- technique
start with a small request before making a bigger one
Door- in- the- face- technique
making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we hope to have granted
low- ball- technique
seller mentions low- price of product and then starts mentioning all the 'add ons'.
Attitude inferences are less likely if the behaviour is freely chosen.
False, attitude inferences are more likely if the behaviour is freely chosen.
An odd number of positive relationships in the balance theory means...
That we have achieved a balanced triad.
What is a function of an attitude?
we adjust attitudes in order to remain internal cognitive consistency.
Describe Bem's self- perception theory
We observe our own behaviour and attribute to it external (situations) or internal (form attitudes), attitude inferences are more likely if the behaviour was freely chosen, best for weak attitudes
An even number of positive relationship is an unbalanced situation. True- False
Unbalanced triads create a tension....
....which motivates us to restore balance.
What is the IAT?
Implicit Attitude Test
To arrive at a conclusion before we have evaluated all the evidence
Adaptive conservatism
Evolutionary principle that creates predisposition towards distrusting anything/anyone familiar.
What are the two major biases associated with our tendency to adaptive conservatism?
In group bias and out group homogeneity
What is in group bias?
The tendency to favor individuals inside our group relative to people outside our group
Out group homogeneity
The tendency to view people outside of our group highly similar. (they all share at least one undesirable characteristic)
Behaviour- treating people outside of the group differently compared to people inside of the group
the crucial difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Discrimination refers to behaviour whereas prejudice refers to attitude
In the interview experience what can be implicated when a prejudiced interviewer engages in discriminating behaviour?
That the individual engages exactly for that reason in the undesired behaviour and confirms interviewer's view.
A belief about a group's characteristic that we apply to most members of that group
What are cognitive misers?
We strive to simplify reality in order to save mental energy
What is the key difference between prejudiced people and non- prejudiced people?
Non prejudiced people are trying to resist stereotypes much more than prejudiced people.
Do stereotypes come to us naturally?
Yes, once we have learned them (when very little). It is hard mental work to overcome them.
Implicit and explicit stereotypes
Stereotypes we are un/aware of
How are prejudices tested?
Through implicit association test
Ultimate attribution error
The mistake of attributing behavior to dispositions of entire group
Scapegoat hypothesis
Prejudices rises from a need to blame groups for our misfortunes
Just- world hypothesis
Implies that we have a deep seated need to perceive the world as fair, to believe all things happen for a reason
Social dominance orientation
people prefer hierarchies in society
Jigsaw classrooms
Children are given different tasks and need to collaborate to complete project. Meant to reduce prejudices.
What can be implied of jigsaw model and the experiment at Robber's Cave?
Increased contact between racial groups is rarely sufficient on its own to reduce prejudices.
How can the attitude- behaviour rleationship be improved?
reducing the social influence on expressed attitudes, measuring attitudes that are specific to the observed behaviour, attitude strength- personal involvement and knowledge
The theory of planned behaviour takes all influences on the particular behaviour- attitude link into account and therefore that link becomes stronger.
Cognitive dissonance is a feeling of discomfort because the attitude is strong but the individual does not act on that attitude.
False, the individual experiences discomfort because she performs and action that is inconsistent with one's attitude.
Who imposed the Cognitive Dissonance Theory?
Leon Festinger
In Zimbardo's experiment about eating grasshoppers: Which group liked eating them? The one group with the positive officer or the group with the formal officer?
The group with the formal officer.
According to Festinger, cognitive dissonance also appeared when prophecy fails. What happened?
People believed that they were given more time to prepare for the apocalypse.
What is the post- decision dissonance?
When we doubt our decisions, we look for evidence that supports our decisions