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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explicit attitudes
are those consciously accessible attitudes that are controllable and easy to report.
Implicit attitudes
are unconscious associations between objects and evaluative responses.
Social learning
which is the process through which we acquire new information, forms of behavior, or attitudes from other people.
Unconditioned stimulus
is one which evokes a positive or negative response without substantial learning.
Conditioned Stimulus
is one that comes to stand for or signal a prior unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
is a basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus. In other words stimulus becomes a signal for presentation or occurrence of the other.
Subliminal Conditioning
is classical conditioning of attitudes by exposing to stimuli that are below individuals’ threshold of conscious awareness. : is by having seen before but not necessarily remembering having done so, attitudes toward an object can become more positive.
conditions under which attitudes best predict behavior
When we minimize other influences on attitudesExample: Bogus Pipeline=Method to try to get people to say what they really feel. When attitudes are strong such as actual experience, vested interest, objective self-awareness, and ideal & real self want to mesh together better. Attitudes are accessible is when thinking about attitudes better match our behavior--Example: Snyder & Schwan-
Mock trial-affirmative action
Affective versus Cognitive: Depends on task
Level of Specificity: general attitude gives general behaviors or groups of behaviors and specific attitudes give specific behaviors.
theory of planned behavior, describe the three factors that determine whether persons with the opportunity to engage in careful thought will act consistently with their intentions.
1. Various behavioral options are considered
2. Consequences or outcomes of each are evaluated
3. A decision is reached to act or not act
Describe the Attitude to Behavior Process Model.
A model of how attitudes guide behavior that emphasizes the influence of attitudes and stored knowledge of what is appropriate in a given situation on an individual’s definition of the present situation. This definition in turn, influences overt behavior.
Discuss Cognitive Dissonance Theory and some of the experimental support for the theory. Describe an alternate theory which can also account for this data. State how the two theories differ.
Basic Propositions
Inconsistency leads to negative psychological tension called dissonance.
That dissonance is associated with a motivation to reduce the dissonance.
That we can reduce the dissonance in 1 of 4 ways
1. We can change our attitude to match our behavior.
2. We can change our perception of the behavior, so it matches our attitudes.
3. We can acquire new info (justifications) that support our behavior, this is called adding consonant cognitions.
4. We can acknowledge that we didn’t have much choice, in emitting the behavior.
Discuss Cognitive Dissonance Theory and some of the experimental support for the theory
Experimental support was found by Festinger and Carl Smith who showed how people if paid to tell how interesting something is will tell others the experience was much more interesting depending on the amount they got paid from nothing , $1, to $20.
Describe an alternate theory which can also account for this data. State how the two theories differ.
Experimental support was found by Festinger and Carl Smith who showed how people if paid to tell how interesting something is will tell others the experience was much more interesting depending on the amount they got paid from nothing , $1, to $20.
An alternative theory is by Arronson and Mills Theory of Arousal. Which showed females level of arousal and initiation.
The difference between the 2 theories is level of arousal.
an alternate theory which can also account for this data Bem’s self-perception theory
we look at our behavior to know what we are thinking and feeling, just as we look at other people’s behavior to know what they are thinking and feeling. (can also account for this data).
Describe factors which have been found to affect persuasion from the Yale Approach. Include source, message and audience factors in your answer.
Source: Who trying to persuade
Credible: Expert Status, speech style is direct not hesitant, rate of speech quick not slow, more eye contact, argue against your self-interest
Likeable: Similar, popular, and physically attractive
Message Factors
Appeals to the emotion work best UNLESS: highly involved in the issue, people who like analytical thinking, and people who are highly educated.
Describe factors which have been found to affect persuasion from the Yale Approach audience factors in your answer
High Credibility-Present it as it is
Not highly Credible-Water message down
Amount of information: More is good
Actively processed NOT passive
Presentation Order: 1st=Persuasive
Simple: Face to Face>TV>Radio>Print
Complex: Face to Face>Print>TV>Radio
Audience Factors
Forewarned=Less likely persuasion to occur
Distraction-Low persuasion-high persuasion
Discuss Petty and Cacioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM).
Central Route=Rational Route: Topic is important or personally relevant
If the message is strong logically consistent then you will be persuaded.
If the message is weak, inconsistent, then no persuasion will occur.
Peripheral Route=Heuristic Route: Topic is not important or not personally
Message is pointless, but cues are important.
Flat and boring not lead to persuasion.
Exciting or scary cues will lead to persuasion.
Discus ways to resist persuasion attempts.
Negative reactions to threats to one’s personal freedom.
Discus ways to resist persuasion attempts.
Advanced knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion.
Discus ways to resist persuasion attempts Selective Avoidance:
A tendency to direct attention away from information that challenges existing attitudes.
is an attitude toward members of some group based solely on their membership in that group. Examples: Al Qaeda’s Attack on World Trade Center or age, marital status, occupation, gender, religion, language spoken, sexual orientation, or body weight.
is negative behaviors directed toward members of social groups who are the object of prejudice.
Example is gender discrimination by blocking women’s progress in the workplace
Discuss how members of different groups perceive inequality
First there are stereotypes that are beliefs about social groups in terms of characteristics that they are believed to share.
Then is risk averse which we weigh possible losses more heavily tan potential gains. As a result we respond more negatively to changes that are framed as potential losses than positively to changes that are framed as potential gains.
For example, African Americans after civil rights movement seeing greater racial equality or Caucasians responding more negatively to racial equality after this same time period.
Nazis with Christian losses and Jews gains after World War II
the Realistic Conflict Theory of Prejudice. Know the procedure to the Robber’s Cave Study
Realistic Conflict Theory=Competition leads to prejudice. Prejudice stems from competition between various social groups over valued commodities or opportunities.
Procedure for Robetrt’s Cave Study
Week 1=Observation-Pair bonds
Week 2=Splits into two groups and separate pairs
Week 3=Competition with one another creates prejudice
End of Week 3=Working together on a task to get rid of prejudice.
. How did competition create animosity between the groups of boys, and how did superordinate goals destroy the ill feelings.
Competion creatd animosity by making them think they were better than other group at tasks if they won and increase tension and prejudice for other team depending on a win or loss from a specific task.
Superordinate task destroyed ill feelings by showing that no one team was greater than the other and all needed to work together to help solve problem that all had to work together which help create unity among the boys again.
Describe Social Categorization Theory and how it can account for prejudice
Social Categorization Theory: Categorizes things/ people, in groups (belong) out groups (don’t belong), whenever self-esteem is threatened we upgrade the in groups and downgrade the out groups.
How it can account for prejudice: It accounts for prejudice by who we consider in our personal in and out groups. It also accounts for prejudice by saying how we categorize people who are not like us.
Describe how stereotypes screen information for us, affect our information processing speed, and cause us to deal with information inconsistent with them.
Information relevant to a particular stereotype processed more quickly than information not relevant to it.
Information consistent with a stereotype is given more attention and is better remembered than information inconsistent with stereotypes.
Stereotypes become self-confirming
Define illusory correlation
Two things are not really related.
illusory correlation. Describe how it plays a role in prejudice
Illusory correlation makes us associate certain characteristics about a particular person or group of persons based on age, race, gender, or characteristics and then assume people of similar characteristics are all that way. This makes us prejudice into thinking all people of certain description are a certain way. For example if a seven foot guy makes a 100on every exam we will think all extremely tall people are really smart.
. State the significance of the perception that out-groups are homogenous and in-groups are differentiated.
The significance is we tend to think all people who aren’t similar to us in some way are all a certain way weather in attitudes, actions, appearance, or beliefs. We think that all people are the same who are different from us. However within our peer group we think we are all different or unique and this make our in group superior in some way to our out group.
Describe the Linville, Fischer, and Salovey (1989) study.
The Linville, Fischer and Salovey Study asked college students and elderly people in a nursing how varied they were compared to the other group. The found people in the college thought all nursing home people were the same grumpy and rude while they thought they as college students were varied in their personality. Nursing home people found college students all the same while they found themselves varied. From this study it was our out-groups are seen as very similar and our in-group members are acknowledged as being different from one another.
Discuss Techniques for countering the effects of prejudice.
Getting Rid of Prejudice
1. Learning not to hate
2. Direcy Intergroup Contact
3. Find Similarities between the groups
4. Stereotypes will be altered
5. Diffusion of out group homogeneity
6. Recategorization= Who is in ingroup or outgroup in different situations. Everyone is equal skills benefit whole group.
contact hypothesis
Contact Hypothesis=The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them.
. List the conditions under which direct intergroup contact will help to reduce discrimination and prejudice. Discuss the extended contact hypothesis
Extended Contact Hypothesis
1. Groups must be of dame social, economic, and task related status
2. Task must involve cooperation and interdependence NOT competition
3. Interactions must be informal so group members get to know one another
4. Groups must interact in ways that permit disconfirmation of negative stereotypes
5. Setting must favor group equality
6. The people must see others as “typical” group members
factors which affect attraction
• We like people who like us (reciprocity)
• We like people who are like us (Similarity)
• We like people we see a lot (proximity)
• We like people who help us
• We like people who they have helped
• We like people who are associated with things we like
• We like people who are physically attractive
Attachment Styles
The degree of security experienced ininterpersonal relationships. Develop in interactions between infant and caregiver when infant acquires basic attitudes about self-worth and interpersonal trust.
• Secure Attachment Style:
A style characterized by high self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. Most successful and most desirable attachment style.
• Fearful-Avoidant Attachment Style:
A style characterized by low self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. Most insecure and least adaptive attachment style.
• Preoccupied Attachment Style
Characterized by low self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. Conflicted and somewhat insecure style in which individual desires a close relationship ut feels he or she is unworthy of partner and vulnerable to rejection.
• Dismissing Attachment Style
: High self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. Conflicted and somewhat insecure style. Individual feels he or she deserves a close relationship but frustrated because of mistrust of potential partners. Result is tendency to reject other person at some point in relationship to avoid being one rejected.