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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Cognition
The way in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world.
The 2 ways we process information
Serially (one thing at a time) and In Parallel (multiple things at a time)
Dual-Process Models of Social Cognition
Theories of social cognition which propose that people employ 2 broad cognitive strategies to understand and respond to social stimuli, one involving effortless thinking and the other involving effortful thinking
Explicit Cognition
Deliberate judgments of decisions of which we are consciously aware
Implicit Cognition
Judgments or decisions that are under the control of automatically activated evaluations occurring without our awareness
Motivated-Tactician Model
An approach to social cognition that conceives of people as being flexible social thinkers who choose among multiple cognitive strategies based on their current goals, motives, and needs
Thought Suppression
The attempt to prevent certain thoughts from entering consciousness
A mental grouping of objects, ideas, or events that share common properties. Also known as concept
Social Categorization
The process of forming categories of people based on their common attributes
The most representative member of a category
An organized structure of knowledge about a stimulus that is built up from experience and that contains casual relations; it is a theory about how the social world operates
A schema that describes how a series of events is likely to occur in a well-known situation, and which is used as a guide for behavior and problem solving
The process by which recent exposure to certain stimuli or events increases the accessibility of certain memories, categories, or schemas
Time-saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules of thumb
Representativeness Heuristic
The tendency to judge the category membership of things based on how closely they match the "typical" or "average" member of that category
Availability Heuristic
The tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
A tendency to be biased toward the starting value or anchor in making quantitative judgments
Hindsight Bias
The tendency, once an event has occurred, to overestimate our ability to have foreseen the outcome
Counterfactual Thinking
The tendency to evaluate events by imagining alternative versions or outcomes to what actually happened
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate how common one's own attitudes, opinions, and beliefs are in the general population
False Uniqueness Effect
The tendency to underestimate how common one's own desirable traits and abilities are in the general population
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
The process by which someone's expectations about a person or group leads to the fulfillment of those expectations
Just-World Belief
A belief system in which the world is perceived to be a fair and equitable place, with people getting what they deserve
Learned Helplessness
The passive resignation produced by repeated exposure to negative events that are perceived to be unavoidable
An estimate of the probability that something is true
A positive or negative evaluation of an object
Implicit Attitude
An attitude that is activated automatically from memory, often without the person's awareness that she or he possesses it
Explicit Attitude
A consciously held attitude
Dual Attitudes
The simultaneous possession of contradictory implicit and explicit attitudes toward the same object
Enduring beliefs about important life goals that transcend specific situations
Mere Exposure Effect
The tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them
Classical Conditioning
Learning through association, when a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is paired with a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally produces an emotional response
Subliminal Conditioning
Classical conditioning that occurs in the absence or conscious awareness of the stimuli involved
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and weakened if followed by punishment
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that we often infer our internal states, such as our attitudes, by observing our behavior
Functional Approach
Attitude theories that emphasize that people develop and change their attitudes based on the degree to which they satisfy different psychological needs. To change an attitude, one much understand the underlying function that the attitude serves
Utilitarian Attitude
Helps the person to achieve rewards and gain approval from others; behaviorist
Knowledge Attitude
Helps the person to structure the world so that it makes sense; cognitive
Ego Defense Attitude
Helps the person protect himself or herself from acknowledging basic self-truths; Psychoanalytic
Value-Expression Attitude
Helps the person express important aspects of the self-concept; Humanistic
Factors to Determine the Attitude-Behavior Relationship
Level of attitude-behavior specificity, time factors, private vs public self-awareness, attitude strength, attitude accessibility
Theory of Planned Behavior
The theory that people's conscious decisions to engage in specific actions are determined by their attitudes toward the behavior in question, the relevant subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control
Behavior Intentions are Shaped By:
attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control
Cognitive Consistency
The tendency to seek consistency in one's cognitions
Cognitive Dissonance
A feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that is inconsistent with one's attitudes
Self-Affirmation Theory
A theory predicting that people will often cope with specific threats to the integrity of their self-concept by reminding themselves of other unrelated by cherished aspects of their self-concept
Reference Group
A group to which people orient themselves, using its standards to judge themselves and the world
The process of consciously attempting to change attitudes through the transmission of some message
Elaboration Likelihood Model
A theory that persuasive messages can cause attitude change in 2 ways: each differing in the amount of cognitive effort or elaboration it requires
Central Route Processing
High elaboration of message content by focusing on information central to message
Peripheral Route Processing
Low elaboration of message content by focusing on information not central to message
Sleeper Effect
The delayed effectiveness of a persuasive message from a noncredible source
Protection-Motivation Theory
A theory proposing that fear induces both a self-protective response and an appraisal of whether the fear-arousing threat can be avoided
Need for Cognition
An individual preference for and tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activities
Subliminal Perception
Process of information that is just below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Attitudes toward members of specific groups that directly or indirectly suggest they deserve an inferior social status
A negative action toward members of a specific social group
Explicit Prejudice
Prejudice attitudes that are consciously held, even if they are not publicly expressed
Implicit Prejudice
Unconsciously held prejudicial attitudes
An attribute that serves to discredit a person in the eyes of others
A system of cultural beliefs, values, and customs that exalts heterosexuality and denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior or identity
Courtesy Stigma
The tendency for individuals who are associated with stigmatized people to face negative evaluations from others
Form of prejudice directed toward a group is determined by 2 social factors:
Whether the target group is perceived as having a competitive or cooperative relationship with mainstream society
Whether the target group is of low or high social status within mainstream society
Contemptuous Prejudice
Occurs when the target group has a competitive relationship with mainstream society and has low social status
Envious Prejudice
Occurs when the target group has a competitive relationship with mainstream society and has high social status
Paternalistic Prejudice
Occurs when the target group has a cooperative relationship with mainstream society and has low social status
3 Different Types of Stigma
Tribal identities, blemishes of individual character, and abominations of the body
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
Perception of outgroup members as being more similar to one another than are members of one's ingroup
Beliefs about people that put them into categories and don't allow for individual variation
Illusory Correlation
The belief that two variables are associated with each other when in fact there is little or no actual association
Stereotype Threat
A disturbing awareness among members of a negatively stereotyped group that any of their actions or characteristics that fit the stereotype may confirm it as a self-characterization
2 Functions of Stereotyped Thinking:
Fast and efficient. Often faulty
Ingroup Bias
Tendency to give more favorable evaluations and greater rewards to ingroup members than to outgroup members
Social Identity Theory
Theory suggesting that people seek to enhance their self-esteem by identifying with specific social groups and perceiving these groups as being better than other groups
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
Theory that intergroup conflict develops from competition for limited resources
Pattern of increased hostility toward outgroups accompanied by increased loyalty to one's ingroup
Superordinate Goal
A mutually shared goal that can be achieved only through intergroup cooperation
Social Dominance Theory
A theory contending that societal groups can be organized in a power hierarchy in which the dominant groups enjoy a disproportionate share of the society's assets and the subordinate groups receive most of its liabilities
Authoritarian Personality
Personality trait characterized by submissiveness to authority, rigid adherence to conventional values, and prejudice toward outgroups
Old-Fashioned Racism
Blatantly negative stereotypes based on beliefs in the racial superiority of one's own group, coupled with open opposition to racial equality
Aversive Racism
Attitudes toward members of a racial group that incorporate both egalitarian social values and negative emotions, causing one to avoid interaction with members of the group
Any attitude, action, or institution structure that subordinates a person because of her or his sex
Ambivalent Sexism
Sexism directed against women based on both positive and negative attitudes (hostility and benevolence), rather than uniform dislike
Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome physical or verbal sexual overtures that create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive social environment
Contact Hypothesis
The theory that under certain conditions, direct contact between antagonistic groups will reduce prejudice
Intergroup Anxiety
Anxiety due to anticipating negative consequences when interacting with an outgroup member
Contact Hypothesis identifies 4 conditions to reduce prejudice:
Equal status interaction, intergroup cooperation, sustained close contact, social norms favoring equality (other condition- friendship potential)
Jigsaw Classroom
A cooperative group-learning technique designed to reduce prejudice and raise self-esteem