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186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the general depictions of males and females in magazines?
Males: dominant, success-based, fitness
Females: passive, sexualized
What is the most significant difference between the way that men and women dress?
What was argued by Findlay?
One's weight reveals aspects of their character and their ability to achieve social rewards. If a woman cannot manage her weight, how could she manage a major corporation?
Overweight women are __ % less likely to marry and __ % more likely to live in poverty.
20, 10
Why psychologists examine personality, sociologists examine the social self consisting of...
The I, the Me, and the Generalized Other
What were the 4 groups identified by Mathews and describe each.
The Elite: a lot of effort into looking good
The Wannabees: if they could change one thing about themselves they could be elites
Life in the Middle: work on themselves as people rather than obsessing over looks
The Fringe: don't bother to try (marginalized)
Define the term "religion"
A religion is a system of meaning for interpreting the world. It is a unified system of beliefs with a supernatural referent.
What are the best-known examples of societies without religion?
Nazi Germany, Communist Russia
What is operationalization
When you take an abstract concept and figure out how you are going to measure it
What is the difference between religious and humanist perspectives?
Religious: discovering life's meaning
Humanist: making life meaningful
What area of Canada has the most people that call themselves religious?
Atlantic Canada
What is Bibby's view on the current position of religion in Canadian society?
Canadians generally believe in God and desire religious services, HOWEVER less and less are turning to religious organizations.
What were the 5 main points made by Marx regarding religion?
i. human creation
ii. opium of the masses
iii. maintains an unequal, exploitive society
iv. delays inevitable transition to communism
v. will eventually fade away
What were the 4 main points made by Durkheim regarding religion?
i. social/human construction
ii. contributes to collective conscience
iii. identifies this as sacred/profane
iv. will continue to impact people/their behaviour
What are the functions of religion as presented by Durkheim?
i. fosters cohesion
ii. offers support during crises
iii. addresses ultimate questions
iv. provides social service
v. legitimizes political authority
vi. influences social change
According to Durkheim, what is the relationship between religion and social solidarity?
Religion creates and reinforces social solidarity.
Define tautology
Circular reasoning (argument goes in circles)
Define teleology
Things exist in this world because of the benefits that they provide for people
What was Weber's main written work regarding religion?
"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"
What were Weber's 3 main points regarding religion (other than the Protestant Ethic)?
i. we should examine religion in terms of how it effects the ways that people behave
ii. religion has been instrumental in shaping modern-day capitalism
iii. religion creates power for some leaders
What is "routinization"?
The process by which a personal following is transformed into a permanent congregation
How did Marx and Weber view the relationship between religion and capitalism?
Marx: Capitalism ---> Religion
Weber: Religion ---> Capitalism
Bibby argues that we should consider what 4 dimensions of religion when assessing its impact upon us?
i. Belief
ii. Practice
iii. Experience (see/speak directly to God)
iv. Knowledge
Why does Samuel Reimer claim that it is easier to be committed in an American religious environment than in a Canadian one?
Higher levels of religiosity in the US have more to do with cultural supports for religiosity than with deeper religious conviction.
_/10 believe in God.
_/10 pray at least once a month.
_/4 consider religion "very important" to them.
_/10 believe in life after death.
8, 6, 1, 7
Weber distinguished church from sect on the basis of what two things?
i. Theology - churches emphasize works, sects stress faith
ii. Relationship to society - for churches accommodation, for sects separation
What are the 5 elements of the Organization Approach as outlined by Bibby?
i. Sources of members
ii. Goals of group
iii. Norms and roles used to establish purpose
iv. Sanctions to ensure conformity
v. Overall success
Outline Rodney Stark's model for religion.
He proposed a "market model" where religious groups are seen as "firms" or "companies" competing for market share.
Outline the 3 main proposed sources of religiosity and their effectiveness.
i. Reflection (on big issues) - NOT viable cause
ii. Socialization - most significant cause, necessary but not sufficient
iii. Deprivation - NOT viable cause
Congregations typically have trouble reconciling their _______ or "challenge" function with their ______ or "comfort" function.
Prophetical, pastoral
__% of Canadians adhere to the R. Catholic church
__% of Canadians are Protestant
__% of Canadians claim no religion
__% of Canadians fall into other religions
45, 29, 16, 7
What is a good example of denominationalism?
Sects emerge due to unstable conditions and when prosperity/stability return they evolve into denominations.
What was Rokeach's view on religious values?
They serve more as standards for condemning others than as standards to judge oneself by or to guide one's conduct.
According to Golsuch and Aleshire, who are the least prejudiced groups in society?
The highly committed religious person and the non-religious person (the marginally involved members are the most prejudiced)
In what area does the most significant difference exist between the values of religious and non-religious individuals?
Personal morality, particularly sexuality
__% of Americans claim to be "born again"
What is "civil religion"?
Dominant in the US, it is the tendency for nationalistic emphases to be nurtured by a society's religions so that a culture takes on many religious-like characteristics (common religion = American way of life).
Why is one of Bibby's books titled "Fragmented Gods"?
He believes that Canadians are turning to fragments of traditional religions.
Where has the most rapid decline in attendance in Canada been?
Roman Catholic churches in Quebec.
Describe the concept of the carnival mirror. Who presented it?
It is the view that the reality of who commits crimes is quite different from who is generally depicted as doing so. It was presented by Reiman and Leighton.
Define white-collar crime
Crime conducted by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation/profession.
Differentiate between deviance and crime.
Deviance involves violation of a norm, crime involves breaking a law.
Differentiate between the 2 types of crimes presented by Hagan as well as the Latin terms associated with them.
- Consensus crimes are those that everyone agrees are serious crime they are "mala in se" meaning inherently bad or evil.
- Conflict crimes involve less agreement, society is truly split. They are "mala prohibita" meaning prohibited by law but NOT evil.
What is social stigma?
Damaged reputation of status
Define "social deviation"
Legal but stigmatized behaviour (ie. mental illness, ex-cons)
Define "social diversion"
How we appear to others (ie. a person with many piercings)
What are formal controls?
Those enforced by the state and its institutions.
What are informal controls?
Those exerted by family, friends, and peers.
Why is crime considered to be a "dark figure"?
Nobody knows how much crime there actually is
There are about _____ crimes reported to police each year.
2.3 million
Of reported crime most is ______ crime.
Outline the crime funnel from top to bottom (base to point)
i. All crime (detected/undetected)
ii. Detected crime (reported/unreported)
iii. Reported crime (founded/unfounded)
iv. Founded crime
v. Crime taken to court (convicted/acquitted)
vi. Convicted
vii. Incarcerated
In 1998, BCS noted that only __% of reported crimes resulted in a conviction.
What are the main reasons why citizens choose not to share knowledge of criminal events with the police?
i. fear reprisal
ii. feel incident is too trivial
iii. embarrassed
iv. believe stolen items are lost
v. illegal commercial transactions
The crime funnel shows the importance of what?
Informal controls over people.
What does Becker mean by the term "moral crusaders"?
People that try to change the behaviour of others. They believe that serious evil exists that must be eliminated.
What are "moral panics"?
Extreme reactions to deviance and crime when ALL OF SOCIETY IS SWEPT UP BY AN IRRATIONAL FEAR.
What is the term for killing of a parent?
What is felony murder?
Basically an expansion of who gets defined as a murderer so that is I am unarmed and trying to rob a 7-Eleven and the shopkeeper tries to shoot me and misses and kills somebody, I am guilty of murder.
Moral panics are extensively examined by whom?
Social constructionists
What is pluralism?
Groups in society are generally equal in the sense that they compete for the ability to control/define crime and deviance.
Who is deviant, according to proponents of the conflict view of crime and deviance?
The lower class(es) are deviant if they impede economic progress.
According to the post-modern viewpoint on crime and deviance, what are the 2 most important things affecting the definitions of crime and deviance?
Power and knowledge
What is the main view behind the post-modern viewpoint on crime and deviance?
Laws are created by the powerful in their own interests BUT this does not only include the bourgeoisie, it also includes scientists, media, etc.
Strain theory grew out of ________.
What is the main view behind strain theory?
Crime and deviance are the result of rising expectations and falling realizations.
What are the 2 main flaws in Merton's typology?
i. Only economically motivated crimes fit
ii. Not everyone defines success in the same materialist way
According to learning theory, people __________________________________________; by ________________________.
Learn by interacting with other deviants, differential association
Define differential association
Criminal behaviour is learned through contact with other individuals and groups
Name and briefly describe the 5 techniques of neutralization.
i. Denial of Responsibility - "I didn't mean it!"
ii. Denial of Injury - "Nobody was hurt"
iii. Denial of victim - "They deserved it/had it coming"
iv. Condemning the Condemners - pointing the finger the other way
v. Appeal to Higher Loyalties - didn't do it for myself
Briefly outline the control theory perspective on crime and deviance.
People are deviant because it is really enjoyable. The real question is why people conform. The answer to this is that people conform because they have been taught internalized self-control.
What is the main critique of control theory?
It works only for minor, occasional deviance involving adolescents, does not work for more serious crime/delinquency. How would it explain politically inspired collective action or why poor people fail to develop conventional attachments in the first place.
What is the "general theory of crime"?
It is a more recent variant of control theory that states that all deviance has a common cause in low self control.
Briefly outline the labelling theory view on crime and deviance.
People behave deviantly when they are defined by society as such.
Briefly outline the "back-and-forth" between Becker and Gibbs.
Becker (labelling) said that adultery is not deviant until one is accused of such deviance. Gibbs (functionalist) replied that the man would not realize an accusation was being made unless there were norms in place telling him he had acted wrongly.
What is the difference between social constructionist and labelling viewpoints regarding crime?
Social constructionists are broadly concerned with the genesis of all social problems whereas labelling theorists are concerned specifically with crime and deviance.
How does Canada's incarceration rate compare to that of other countries?
Higher than India, Japan, and Western Europe but much lower than Russia and the US.
What are the 4 main correlates of crime?
i. Age
ii. Sex
iii. Visible minority status
iv. Social class
Briefly outline the "liberation hypothesis"
As women less frequently perform traditional domestic roles and enter the workplace in larger numbers, their patterns of crime and deviance will come to resemble those of men.
What do objectivist accounts of crime and deviance focus on?
The behaviour itself
What are the most valid and reliable crime statistics?
Homicide rates
What was shown through the studies of Gartner and Thompson?
Homicide VICTIMS in Toronto (only city studied) are increasingly likely to be male, young, black, and to live in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.
Most victims _______ their killer, most _________ homicides occur during _____________________.
Know, stranger, the course of a criminal incident
Briefly outline "routine activities theory"
The presence of a suitable target and the absence of capable guardian(s) is enough, bring these conditions together with motivated offenders and deviance and crime will likely result.
What are the 2 main schools of thought when it comes to accounting for male/female differences in crime and deviance?
i. control and opportunity
ii. it is unreasonable to suppose that male systems devised with male behaviour in mind will be equally applicable to female deviants
What is the fastest growing crime of the 21st century?
Identity theft
What are the 3 main reasons that prisons fail to rehabilitate?
i. commitment to/funding for rehabilitation has never been strong
ii. inmate subculture with own code of conduct that often challenges regime imposed upon them
iii. learn new skills/justifications for violence in prison
Describe the "certainty principle"
Potential offenders are more often deterred by the thought of certain but moderate punishment than by the guarantee of severe punishment for an act that they believe they can get away with.
Describe "environmental opportunity theory"
People actively choose where they want to live based upon preferred lifestyle
What do demographers do?
They measure population characteristics and focus on economic, social, cultural, and biological interactions.
What do globalization theorists examine?
How residency choices are based upon international arrangements
Hayford argues that our most salient social problems are city problems, these include what?
Crime, racial conflict, traffic, affordable housing
What is the commonly accepted definition of the term "city"?
A relatively large, densely populated, permanent settlement in which most residents do not produce their own food.
When and where did the first cities emerge?
3000-4000 BCE, Mesopotamia and Egypt
Why , according to Bonner, can Prairie Edge (Camrose, AB) be classified as "rurban"?
The ethic there of "everybody knowing everybody" is one of helping and politeness (rural) but NOT one of sociability and friendliness (urban) therefore possessing both rural and urban characteristics.
Even at their height, ancient and medieval cities were not capable of supporting urban populations larger than ___% of society.
Define "the demographic transition"
The change from high to low birth and death rates
What have some described as "the second demographic transition"?
The population as a whole becoming older due to declining fertility rates.
What was argued by Malthus regarding population?
Population will grow exponentially while food supply will grow arithmetically, therefore, we will eventually outstrip the food supply.
What was argued by Marx regarding population?
Population is dependent upon the needs of capitalism.
What is the "reserve army of labour" according to Marx?
An excess supply of workers allowing factory owners to keep wages low and constantly put pressure on the jobs of the workers.
Why does the reserve army of labour change, according to Marx?
Due to economic expansion and contraction
What did Park believe to be the most effective research strategy?
"The most effective research strategy is one that requires sociologists to participate personally in the world which they analyze. Without such participation, knowledge is not experience but an uncertain commentary on experience."
Social disorganization theory was influenced by _________'s notions of __________ and ________________.
Durkheim, mechanical, organic
What is mechanical solidarity?
Proposed by Durkheim, it is the bonding that pulls people together on the basis of similarity.
What is organic solidarity?
Proposed by Durkheim, it is the idea that people are bonded on the basis that everyone is bound by the knowledge that ALMOST EVERYONE IS DOING SOMETHING TO CONTRIBUTE.
What was the intent of the studies of the Chicago School of Sociology that were funded by the Rockefellers?
Understanding the natural laws of social existence.
What was the main conclusion of the social disorganization theorists from the Chicago school of sociology?
Society does not always develop in a civil matter
Name the 5 zones of Burgess and Park's concentric zone model, starting from the centre and working your way outwards.
i. CBD (central business district)
ii. Transition zone
iii. Working class/blue-collar homes
iv. Better residences
v. Commuter zone
In Burgess and Park's concentric zone model, where does the most crime occur? What is Calgary's equivalence of this?
The transition zone, the Beltline.
When did Chicago's greatest population growth occur?
Between 1900 and 1930.
What was proposed by Shaw and McKay?
Social problems are spatially produces, meaning that social space is the true cause of crime. Therefore, crime will occur in the transition zone regardless of who lives there.
Describe Gillis' concept of "deviant service centres".
These are areas in cities in which crime and deviance are able to flourish.
According to the "deviant service centre" concept, cities allow for what 3 things?
i. High levels of specialization
ii. High levels of coordination
iii. Economies of scale
What are the 3 main critiques of the Burgess and Park model and how it may have fit for 20th century Chicago but is no longer applicable?
i. often there is more than one growth nucleus
ii. transport corridors act as magnets for growth
iii. some people never leave their neighbourhoods
Name and describe the model of urban growth proposed by Harris and Ullman.
The multiple-nuclei model involves a series of growth centres (residential, retail, etc.)
Name and describe the model developed by Hoyt.
The sector model claimed that cities grow in sectors or wedges along major transportation arteries, extending like tentacles away from the CBD.
Differentiate between the concept of "gemeinschaft" and "gesselschaft" as proposed by Tonnies.
Gemeinschaft: "community of feeling" in small towns etc.
Gesselschaft: characteristic feature of social relations in the city
Wirth proposed a distinctive way of life called _________ that is _______________ but ________________.
Urbanism, economically efficient, socially destructive
Describe the concept of urban primacy
Dominant in the Southern hemisphere, it is where one metropolitan centre, typically the capital city, is considerably larger and more dominant than any others (ie. Mexico City)
Describe the concept of peri-urbanization
It is when rural and urban areas become blurred due to unplanned settlements on the outskirts of large cities (Asia, Africa, Latin America).
What is the concept of "desakota"?
People still live in village settings and land is cultivated but the majority of income does not come from agriculture and many even commute into cities.
Describe the concept of urban bias.
When there is uneven investment and development favouring rural over urban areas.
The corporate city is based on what?
Capital accumulation.
The corporate city is comprised of what 5 elements?
i. Corporate suburbs
ii. The shopping centre
iii. The suburban industrial park
iv. The downtown office tower
v. The high-rise apartment building
What is the significance of Don Mills, Ontario?
First mass suburb. Completely changed the creation of cities. Built and funded by private developer. No more front porches (interaction and sense of security lost).
What was the US equivalent of Don Mills?
Levittown, Long Island
How is suburban life characterized?
Sterile, meaning that conformity rules and individuality is stifled. Organized mainly around the needs of children.
According to Berger, what does the myth of "suburbia" involve?
Uniformly middle-class, homogeneous, conformist, child-centred, female-dominated hotbeds of sociability.
Name and briefly describe the concept related to urbanism proposed by Logan and Molotch.
The urban growth machine involves a loosely structured coalition of local economic and political interest groups with a commitment to sustained growth and development.
Describe "the edge city" component of post-modern cities.
No dominant single core or definable set of boundaries. Two-income families with children, therefore based on convenience. Situated in "exurbia" (commuter-range rural residential).
What is "the multiethnic city" component of post-modern cities?
Contrary to Chicago model, no single pattern for first generation immigrant settlement. Both poor and "well-off" neighbourhoods for certain ethic groups/immigrants.
Describe "the dual city" component of post-modern cities.
Central city split into "city of the rich" (a.k.a. information based formal economy) and "city of the poor" (a.k.a. informal economy).
Name and describe the 3 elements of "the dual city"
i. Gentrification: transformation of working-class housing into fashionable downtown neighbourhoods
ii. Private communities: homogeneous, secure
iii. Fortress cities: urban disadvantaged isolated both socially and spatially from "better-off"
What are the prime examples of the 3 main types of cities discussed?
Industrial: Chicago
Corporate: Calgary
Post-Modern: New York, London, Vancouver
Name and describe the idea presented by Foucault.
Panopticism: We can make "cross-shaped" panopticons (prisons) with an individual in the centre that can see everything (essentially). Crime rates dropped when we introduced lesser, more gentle, and more prevalent and pervasive types of control (CCTV).
What is one of the main concerns regarding the post-modern city?
The privatization of space
Name some diseases caused by obesity.
Type 2 diabetes, Hepatitis type 1, high blood pressure, stroke, respiratory problems, colon/bowel problems, mechanical problems, sleep apnea, reproductive problems, gallbladder disease
What was significant about the Burnaby Mountain initiative?
Entire village designed to increase daily exercise. Grocery stores etc. built first so that pathways and such could be built around them. Anti-sprawl community. Bike and car co-ops.
What was significant about the Sandy Lake initiative?
10 years ago had 3rd highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. Partnered with grocery stores to put healthy foods at end of aisles, labelling system. Walking paths/clubs/events.
What was significant about the Philadelphia initiative?
Healthier vending machines/cafeteria food. Healthy eating/choices classes. Focusing on environment rather than individual. Gaining access to community through school.
What type of body fat causes individuals to be most vulnerable to diseases?
Visceral fat (in the abdominal cavity)
What is the human exceptionalism paradigm?
Humans are better than any other species therefore we should get to enjoy all the benefits of exploiting the environment as much as we can.
Dominant paradigm: Material wealth
Alternative enviro. paradigm: _______________
Self actualization
One of the first attempts to measure people's attitudes towards the environment was ___________________'s ______________________.
Dunlap and Viere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP).
Describe the broadening base hypothesis.
Environmental concerns will eventually diffuse throughout society.
The environmental movement was initially a creation of ___________. Now it is primarily a ______________ movement.
The elite, new middle class
What triggered the first modern environmental movements?
Rachel Carson publishing Silent Spring, a book about the potentially apocalyptic effects of DDT on the food chain.
Briefly outline the 3 "waves" of environmentalism.
1st wave: Silent Spring
2nd wave: less apocalyptic, more cooperative
3rd wave: climate change, The Green Party
Define morality plays
When environmental group members present themselves as the idealistic and morally good protectors of the environment.
Describe Beck's risk-society thesis.
Contemporary societies have been preoccupied with issues related to the distribution of social "bads", particularly the environmental risks and externalities produced by industry.
Describe Jevon's paradox.
As we become more efficient in the use of a natural resource, the price of using it goes down and we therefore use more of it.
Who proposed the concept of peak oil? Briefly outline the concept.
Hubbert. We are going to run out of oil and problems will begin when we get to the midway point (predicted mid-1970s).
Describe the concept of a resource curse.
Arises where valuable natural resources are abundant. This abundance discourages democracy because privately-owned natural resource industries provide gov. with most of its revenue, allowing them to exert political influence.
Mobility if people is dependent upon what?
Whether environmental organizations are community-based, grassroots organizations formed in reaction to a catastrophe, or more broadly based and rooted in environmental values.
What is relational anchoring?
Risk may seem low because danger is slow to arise.
What are the 4 main stages of a labour of confusion (as outlined on slides)?
1. People perceive themselves as victims
2. They appeal to gov. agencies for help
3. Disillusionment
4. Change invoked or prob. continues unchecked
What environmental approach is David Suzuki critical of?
The environmental management/sustainable development approach which suggests that technology and innovation can resolve difficulties.
What are command and control principles? What is the main complaint?
They involve the government "commanding" industry to be more environmentally friendly. The complaint form industry is that this doesn't allow them to come up with these initiatives of their own accord.
What is corporate greenwashing?
Promoting a "green" image simply as a public relations ploy to attract more business.
What is "body burden"?
The sum of dangerous chemicals that accumulates in the human body over time.
What is in most hard plastics and in frequent low doses can cause cancer and other serious diseases?
Bisphenol A (BPA)
What is "full-stomach environmentalism"?
Dealing with nature preservation for the purpose of enjoyment and enhancing quality of life.
Name and briefly describe the 3 main different environmental perspectives.
Liberal: human exceptionalism paradigm
Sustainable development: we can use science/inventions to fix any problems that occur
Limits to growth: we need to get serious and consider actual caps to economic expansion (ie. 1 child rule)
What is the most promising area of sociological research on the environment?
Social constructionism.
What is the focus on of social constructionist studies of the environment.
Claims-makers who raise environmental issues and those who attempt to subvert such messages. Essentially, they focus on how issues are framed and perceived by others.
According to social constructionists, what are the 3 ways that success is achieved by those trying to raise or subvert environmental issues?
i. use of popularizers (ie. Suzuki)
ii. identifying positive incentives
iii. drawing upon institutional sponsors (ie. Rockefeller Foundation)
What does Weber mean by "legitimate" power?
Not coerced. Legitimate power is known as authority.
What were the 3 types of authority outlined by Weber?
i. Traditional
ii. Legal-rational (bureaucratic)
iii. Charismatic
What was Weber's view on people "buying-in" to society?
People buy-in to society and the way that it operates even if they think that it is unfair
Name and briefly describe the 5 theories of democracy.
i. Pluralism - power is dispersed
ii. Elite - corps, gov., military hold power
iii. Marxist - big business holds power
iv. Power balance - power shifts at times
v. State-centred - state itself holds power
Name and briefly describe the 5 theories of democracy.
i. Pluralism - power is dispersed
ii. Elite - corps, gov., military hold power
iii. Marxist - big business holds power
iv. Power balance - power shifts at times
v. State-centred - state itself holds power
Name and briefly describe the 5 theories of democracy.
i. Pluralism - power is dispersed
ii. Elite - corps, gov., military hold power
iii. Marxist - big business holds power
iv. Power balance - power shifts at times
v. State-centred - state itself holds power
What are social movements?
Relatively large and organized groups of people working for or opposing social change.
According to Brym, what has been the most successful of the new social movements?
Name and briefly describe the 5 types of citizenship.
i. Civil - right to free speech, religion, justice (1700s)
ii. Political - right to run for office + vote (early 20th century)
iii. Social - right to economic security (today)
iv. Universal - right for all to enjoy peace, security, and a clean environment (today)
What are the 4 types of denial (as used in the coverage of the Westray mine disaster)?
i. Literal denial - arranging damaging information into inaccurate forms of storytelling
ii. Interpretive denial - admitting raw facts but developing a narrative framework that contests them
iii. Implicatory denial - recontextualizing events and excusing them as normal, justified, or necessary
iv. Passive denial - claiming no problem really exists
When does "development" take place?
When most people’s standard of living, opportunities for cultural and spiritual growth, and control over their own lives increase.
When are dominant modes of thinking said to be hegemonic?
When dominant groups seek to impose certain modes of thinking and behaviour from which they benefit on subordinate groups through persuasion and force and over time the subordinate groups begin to accept these modes of thinking and behaviour as normal.
What are subcultures?
Cultures associated with groups that differ from the larger culture in terms of language, values, style of life, etc.
According to Smith, when is violence in sports "legitimate"?
If actions are deemed to be within the confines of the normative order of the sport
What are the 2 lasting legacies of the human rights era?
i. blunted sharpest edges of Western violence in the global south
ii. human rights become the language/medium/idiom of protest for years to come
Define risk-transfer militarism
Where the US and its main allies can transfer the risks of war from their own soldiers to enemy civilians
Define neoliberalism
A set of policies that seeks to create a worldwide market for capital and trade flows free of government interference
Name and briefly describe the 5 types of citizenship.
i. Civil - right to free speech, religion, justice (1700s)
ii. Political - right to run for office + vote (early 20th century)
iii. Social - right to economic security (today)
iv. Universal - right for all to enjoy peace, security, and a clean environment (today)
Name and briefly describe the 5 types of citizenship.
i. Civil - right to free speech, religion, justice (1700s)
ii. Political - right to run for office + vote (early 20th century)
iii. Social - right to economic security (today)
iv. Universal - right for all to enjoy peace, security, and a clean environment (today)