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62 Cards in this Set

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Social Stratification

- System by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarch


-principles


=trait of society not reflection of individual


=carries over gen to gen


=is universal, but not variable


=involves inequality and belief



Caste Systems

-social stratification (societal ranking) based on birth

Class System

- social stratification (societal ranking) based on birth and individual achievement

INTRAgenerational social mobility

-the change in social status during a persons lifetime

INTERgenerational social mobility

-up or down movemnet that takes place across family generations

Colonialism

-when states enrich themselves thro political and economic control of another nation

Neocolonialism

- economic exploitation by multinational corporations

Dependency Theory (HINT: think about the word dependence)

-the economic positions of rich and poor countries are linked and need to be understood apart from each other


-EX Some nations became rich only through making others poor.

Relative Poverty

-deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more


- non-lifethreatening deprivation of resources

Absolute Poverty

- life threatening deprivation of resources

what gender is more impoverished?

-women


59% are poor


Women heads of the household are at a high risk for poverty



Explaining Poverty: Blame the Poor

-poor are responsible for their own poverty


-produces aa cycle of poverty



Race

-socially constructed, people who share the same biological traits


-ex black, white, asian

Ethnicity

-shared cultural heritage


-ex latino, jewish

Prejudice

-an attitude that leads someone to judge a person on traits, real or imaginary

individualistic fallacy

assumption that racism only belongs to the realm of ideas and prejudices

legalistic fallacy

assumption that abolishing racist laws abolishes racism

tokenistic fallacy

the assumption that bc ppl of color are in influential positions, racism dosnt exist

ahistorical fallacy

assumption that history is inconsequential

fixed fallacy

assumes racism is the same across space and time

mens rae fallacy

assumes racism only results from malicious intent

familiarity fallacy

assumes that having friend/family of other races means that that person cannot be racist/prejudice

white privilege

benefits: interactional, social, economic, psychological




white advantage

sex

ascribed




male or female

gender

traits and social positions attached to being feminine of masculine




achieved

interpersonal sexism

personal belief one sex or gender is superior to the other




ex assuming men cannot take care of babies as well as women

institutional gender stratification

an unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege btw men and women

what caused the aging population decrease?

higher life expectancy


lower birth rates

primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy

P- generated raw materials from environment


S-transforms raw materials into manuf. goods


T- generates services rather than goods

decline of agriculture work (postindustrial)

1900 - 40%




2011 - 1.6%




fam farms replaced by ag businesses

(postindustrial) decline of industrial work brought a

rise of service work with only modest standards of living earned



Types of Authority - Traditional

power thro respect from long established cultural patterns

Types of Authority - Rational-Legal

power thro legally enacted rules and regulations

Types of Authority - Charismatic

power thro personal ability

Power in Society - Pluralist Model

sees power as spread among many competing intrest groups

Power-elite model

sees power as concentrated among the rich

Marxist political-economy model

explains politics thro the operation of a societies economic system

Structural-Functional Theory

establish social cohesion




promote social control




provide meaning and purpose

is a america more cold to atheists?

yes

marriages in the US (% or interracial and same race)

inter - 8.4%




same - 91.6

why do 9/10 get married but 5/10 get divorced


(5 reasons)

individualism




less female dependence on man




more stresfull marriages




more socially accepted




more easily acquired

what are the ways in which formal education supports operation and stability of society

socializes students




it is the "great equalizer"




you learn "hidden curriculum"

how does schooling cause inequality

standardize testing




institutional inequality




access to college

plea bargaining

the legal negotiation where charges are reduced inexchange for a guilty plea




causes innocents ppl to plead guilty




disadvantages low income defendants

who is the world incarceration leader

USA

why are prisons so profitable

source of cheap labor




companies profit from them


food venders


wardens/officers


phone companies

why has the death penalty declined

high cost




wrongful convicts



less fear of crime




more life w/o parole





female incarceration

women are the fastest growing prison population 6%




most have kids & are uneducated

how does society shape health

cultural patterns define health




standards of health change over time




social inequality/technology affects ppls health

medicine

focuses on fighting disease and improving health

holistic medicine

prevents illness and takes into account a persons entire physical environment

what did the Affordable Care Act (Obama Care) do

ppl cannot be denied insurance do to illness




not caps on expenses




all families pay insurance tax




health insurance is required

Contagion Theory of Crowd Behavior

ppl surrender to the "collective mind"




crowds assume a life of its own




members feel a sense of autonomy

Convergence Theory of Crowd Behavior

like-minded ppl




they wish to act in a certain way




already share existing social/political attitudes

Emergent-norm Theory of Crowd Behavior

begin with mixed interests/motives




norms are vague or changing




Alternative Social Movement

limited change




for specific ppl

Reformative Social Movement

limited change




for everybody

Redemptive Social Movement

radical change




for specific ppl

Revolutionary Social Movement

radical change




for everyone

modernity

changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution

modernization

process of social change that started bc of industrialization

characteristics of postmodern thinking

modernity has failed




progress is fading




science no longer holds the answer




social institutions are changing