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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
socialist economy:
-The government controls most economic activity.
-Government agencies provide medical services and operate hospitals and clinics
-Doctors and other medical professionals are state employees who receive salaries for their services
Examples of socialist systems are found in ______________ and _____________
China and the Russian Federation
How is China's health system organized?
-Socialist System
-The government administers health care, operating hospitals and clinics in large population centers
-"Barefoot Doctors": visit rural villages, providing basic health care to tens of millions of Chinese peasants
China's Medicine:
Combines modern scientific medicine with traditional healing arts (such as acupuncture and medicinal herbs)
How has China escaped the AIDS epidemic that other Asian nations have faced?
They have traditional sexual norms which remain strong
What is the main reason for China having high rates of cancer and heart disease? (%)
Smoking- 57% of Chinese men smoke (Only 3% of women)
Which nation has been changing its socialist economy in the direction of a market-based system?
Russian Federation
How is the Russian Federation's health system organized?
-Socialist System
-Most health care is still under government control, even though they are changing their economy from being socialist to a market-based system
-People go to government-run clinics for treatment (like China does)
What is a consequence of state controlled systems? (Russian Federation in particular)
-Physicians are paid much less for their work than their counterparts in the U.S.
-Many Doctors in the Russian Federation earn little more than skilled factory workers
____% of the Russian Federation's doctors are _______, compared with ____% in the U.S.
75% are women
Compared to 30% in the U.S.
How is the health of people in the Russian Federation?
-Poor health
-In the 1990s the Russian Federation suffered an economic decline which resulted in a sharp drop in the health of the population
-Life expectancy has dropped (especially for men)
-The decline has further strained a bureaucratic system that has long provided standardized care and impersonal care
what is a capitalist economy?
-Capitalist economies make health care- like other goods and services- available through a market system.
-People purchase health care according to their individual needs and resources
-However, Capitalist nations have additional strategies to cover the expense of health care
What is socialized medicine?
A medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians
Which nation has mostly a market-based economy but takes a socialist approach to to health care?
Describe Sweden's health care system:
-Socialist Approach: believes that health care is a basic right for all citizens
-Raises money to fund its government-run health care system by taxation, making Swedish taxes among the highest in the world
How are physicians paid in Sweden?
-Most are government employees who receive salaries rather than collecting fees from patients
-Government officials also manage most of the country's hospitals
Since Sweden's system resembles that found in socialist countries, it is often called ___________________
Socialized Medicine
*Sweden is Dual-Based
Swedens economy is mostly _____________ and their health care system takes a _____________ approach, making it a ____________ system.
-Market-Based (Capitalist)
-Socialist Approach
-Dual-Based system
How is Sweden's Health?
Overall high health- and all swedes receive much the same quality of care
Great Britain has a _____________ health care system
Dual-Based System
Explain Great Britain's Health care system:
-Did not do away with private care so they created a dual system with government and private medical services operating side by side
-The gvts. National Health Service provides care to all British citizens and pays for a physician's services, hospital stays and prescription drugs
-But people who can pay for it can also obtain the services of private doctors and hospitals
Sweden and Great Britain both have a capitalist Economy but their health care systems are what?
Dual Based
Canada is also a capitalist nation but their healthcare system is what?
"Single-payer" System
-The government pays physicians and hospitals with the funding coming from taxes but Canada permits doctors to work outside the government-funded system (Like Great Britain) , setting their own fees for patients who can purchase care privately
What do critics say about Canada's Health Care system?
-That care is cheaper there because Canada uses less expensive technology medicine
-And that the system responds slow to people's needs, often making them wait months to receive major surgery
How do Physicians and hospitals operate in Japan?
Operate privately in a market system
Explain Japan's health care system:
Market based
-At the same time, a combination of government programs and private health insurance pays most medical costs
How does Japan's government pay for most of the cost of medical care?
By tax money which distributes the costs over the entire population
- People who earn more pay higher taxes
Which nation has the best health and which has the worse?
Japan has the best health and the Russian Federation has the worst
How is the United States stand out from the rest of the high-income nations?
The U.S. treats medical care not as a right but as a product that must be purchased on the open market.
-The U.S. is the only high-income nation to rely on a Direct-Fee System
What is a direct-fee system?
A medical care system in which patients or their insurers pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals
True or False: Sweden and Great Britain both have socialized medicine
Countries with a socialist economic system provide health care to their people through what?
The operation of government
Which of the following countries does not guarantee health care to all people?
A) Sweden
B) China
C) United States
D) All of the above are correct
C) United States
What did Thomas Szasz say about mental health?
-That people apply the label of "insanity" to behavior they find disturbing when in reality these patterns are only "different"
-Believes that they do not exist because many mental disorder and their causes are understood
-People are quick to condemn as "Crazy" behavior that fails to conform to conventional norms
Do most people in the field agree to Thomas Szasz's thoughts on mental disorder?
No, most reject the notion that mental illness is fiction (fake). His claim is controversial
What does Tomas Szasz's work contribute to the field?
-It points out the danger of using medicine to promote conformity
-Everyone behaves in ways that disturbs others but that does not give others a right to force us to change
-Responding to "difference" with medical labels that stigmatize can do a great deal of harm (dehumanizes people).
How does social class affect mental illness?
-Found most people with serious mental disorders live in poverty
-Farist Dunham documented the power of poverty to cause mental illness
-Poverty breeds stress and social isolation which increases the risk of mental disorders
-The stigma and isolation associated with being poor in the U.S. may by itself be enough to harm the mental health of many people
Poverty and Health:
Poverty means a lack of adequate nutrition, medical care, and state housing
-44 million people in the united states live below the poverty line and most cannot afford a healthy diet
-Poverty is also associated with violence, especially among men
-Certain categories of poor people, including American Indians and African Americans, are at even greater risk of both physical and mental health problems
How does gender inequality impact mental health for women?
-Men have more freedom to behave as they wish but when a women violates conventional norms they are at a higher risk of being labeled as deviant
-Women are portrayed as emotionally unstable which causes anxiety and depression
-Women's health concerns have often been treated less effectively and overlooked by researchers
-Eating disorders are widespread among females which illustrate the power of gender to harm health
On average, women outlive men by about ________ years
What is the most serious problem that students face on campus regarding mental health?
-The number of students with mental illnesses is increasing
-The problem is linked to children living in poverty, low levels of parental involvement, not taking medications properly, or the high demands of college work being too much
What are factors pushing up health care costs?
-The system of private insurance
-The trend towards doctors specializing
-Increasing use of high-technology treatment
-The aging U.S. population
-A lack of preventative care
-And a rising number of malpractice lawsuits
According to Macionis, how does the way we construct gender influence a person's health?
Our society encourages men to be more individualistic and aggressive, placing them at greater risk for accidents, violence, and suicide
(How society defines masculinity)
-Less research conducted on women subjects so doctors don't know how women respond to many treatments
-Our culture defines women's values in terms of physical attractiveness which increases eating disorders for women
-(Menopause)- doctors turn normal life events into medical "problems" that require long term medication
According to Macionis, how does racial bias influence a person's health?
-Racial bias affects health even for African Americans who are not poor
-Research shows that people of color often receive less thorough medical treatment than whites
-Doctors are less likely to order advanced tests for African Americans ( 40 %) compared to white patients who have the exact same symptoms. This contributes to high death rates
The Radical Left and health
Capitalism is unhealthy
-blame the profit motive for inequalities in health care in the U.S.
-Call for a rejection of capitalism in favor of a socialist system that would provide equal health care for all
Liberals and Health
Government must ensure universal care
-Focus on inequalities in the health care received by rich and poor people
-Liberals favor making government responsible for more of the health care system to ensure access for everyone
Conservatives and Health
Free markets provide the best care
-Emphasize individual responsibility for health, they believe that good health results from wise decisions about how to live
-Claim that competition in a free marketplace will result in high-quality, low-cost health care
Sick role:
A pattern of behavior expected of people defined as ill
Mental Disorder:
A condition involving thinking, mood, or behavior that causes distress and reduces a person's ability to function in everyday life
An approach to mental health in which patients talk with trained professionals to gain insight into the cause of their problems
The release of people from mental hospitals into local communities
what was De-institutionalization prompted by?
The development of psychoactive drugs
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Infant mortality Rate:
The number of babies who die before their first birthday out of every 1,000 born
Life Expectancy:
The number of years, on average, people in a society can expect to live
Chronic Disease:
An illness that has a long-term development
Acute Disease:
An illness that strikes suddenly such as malaria, cholera, or measles
True or False: The well-being of any population reflects the operation of society, including its level of technology and degree of social inequality
True or False: Many people with acute illnesses die and as many as half of all children die before ten years of age
Structural Functional Approach and health:
Health and social roles
-Highlights the functions of health for the operation of society
-Illness is a problem because it keeps people from fulfilling their social roles
-People who become ill take on the sick role, which relieves them of most everyday social obligations as long as they make efforts to get well
Symbolic Interaction Approach and health:
The meaning of health
-Focuses on the meanings people attach to health and illness
-The meanings attached to conditions change over time such as homosexuality
-The existence of Psychosomatic Disorders demonstrates that how people define any health situation may affect how they actually feel
Social Conflict Approach and health:
Health and Inequality
-Points out how social inequality shapes patterns of health
-Born in the U.S. and throughout the world, poor people suffer from the most health problems
-In a capitalist economy, medical practice is guided by the profit motive; many people in the U.S. lack health care because they cannot afford to par for it
Dorthea Dix: (1840) time period
She pledged to change the way society viewed people with mental illness and devoted her life to writing, speaking, and lobbying government officials
-She pioneered the term asylum: where people could find protection and treatment .
-Rather than locking people away in prisons she fought to show that these people need help and compassion
-Took Place in 1840 -U.S. only had 13 facilities for people with mental illness and her actions resulted in 20 asylums to be created
Why do people use drugs?
1) Therapeutic uses
2) Recreational uses
3) Spiritual or Psychological uses
4) Escape
5) Social Conformity
Offer medical benefits such as controlling seizures, lessening depression or reducing pain: is what kind of drug use?
Therapeutic use
Consuming beer or wine with a meal can make people feel more relaxed and can even make foods taste better: is what kind of drug use?
Recreational use
Alters human consciousness. Native American societies use peyote to change their awareness and deepen their spiritual experiences: is what kind of drug use?
Spiritual or psychological uses
Many people enduring serious trouble in their lives turn to alcohol or other drugs to dull the pain of living: is what kind of drug use?
Why most people probably use drugs. Peer pressure may lead people to smoke cigarettes or older people to drink cocktails: is what kind of drug use?
Social Conformity
A physical or psychological craving for a drug

-Doctors first began to use this term back in the 19th century when they considered people "Addicted" if they suffered physical distress, also known as withdrawal symptoms
Withdrawal Symptoms:
Symptoms that occur when someone stops using a drug
-The only way to end such symptoms is by taking more of the drug
Susy just stopped using cocaine and now has the chills, fever, and nausea. This is an example of what?
Withdrawal symptoms
A state in which a person's body has adjusted to regular use of a drug
Drugs that increase alertness, altering a person's mood by increasing energy
(Widely used in U.S. because our culture values action and achievement)
Examples of Stimulants:
-Cocaine and Crack
What is the greatest preventable cause of death in the U.S.?

-Each year 440,000 people die prematurely due to smoke
-The death toll far exceeds the use of alcohol and all illegal drugs combined
Drugs that slow the operation of the central nervous system

(Also knows as "Downers" and have an effect opposite to stimulants)
Examples of depressants include:
Analgesics: drugs that dull pain such as over-the-counter pain relievers (Most widely used analgesic)

Naturally occurring narcotics or opiates, such as opium and opium derivatives including morphine, codeine, and heroin

Sedatives, Hypnotics and Alcohol

Anti-psychotics- including lithium and haldol used to treat people with schizophrenia
True or False: With the exception of nicotine, alcohol is is the most addictive drug available legally without a prescription
Can distort sensory perceptions

-Hallucinogens are stimulants that are generally taken in pill or capsule form that cause hallucinations
Examples of Hallucinogens:
LSD, Peyote, Ecstasy
Behavior on the part of others that helps a substance abuser continue the abuse

-Members of a family changing their behavior to make up for the shortcomings of the drug abuser
What are examples of codependency?
Codependent family members may try to earn extra money, help with the housework, hide evidence of accidents, cover for an abuser who misses work, or even provide drugs to the abuser in an effort to keep the peace and just get through another day
Jacqueline Wiseman studied alcoholics/codependency and found that:
Children growing up with a substance abuser lose their ability to trust others because the abuser had let them down so many times. Children take on roles of parents and are forced to grow up
What is the most widely used "Drug" (or substance) in the U.S.?
What country tried to decriminalize drugs and why didn't it work?
Zurich (Switzerland's capital City)-Failed
-Had park where people could use drugs under the control of health officials- handed out free needles to prevent aids and condoms but government was spending too much money and violence broke out.
-Graffiti and violence were also problems and people were afraid to leave their homes that lived near
-Park drew attention to a lot of people from all over Switzerland and other European countries
Why did decriminalization in The Netherlands work out?
Only decriminalized soft drugs such as weed and hashish in cannabis cafes
- cafes allowed to legally sell up to five grams for the use of soft drugs
-Dutch prisoners are not filling up people convicted of drug offenses and violence did not break out
-Level of weed users among dutch teenagers is no higher than teens in the U.S.
What other nation followed the Dutch example?
Belgium made the possession of weed legal for personal use
What was the prohibition and when did it occur?
Look it book- Bootlegging, prohibition of BOOZE