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18 Cards in this Set

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Contrast vs non-contrast CT

contrast:


AV malformation


primary or met tumor




non-contrast:


r/o hemorrhage


trauma or acute neurological change

Subdural vs epidural hemorrhage CT

subdural --> convex & compresses ventricles & chronic


epidural --> concave & middle menigeal artery & acute

subdural --> convex & compresses ventricles & chronic




epidural --> concave & middle menigeal artery & acute

Reasons for abd pelvic CT

evaluate retroperitoneal structures




pancreatitis or pancreatic mass




mets from colon, prostate, testicular, or renal cancer




best to dx appendicitis & diverticulitis

Reasons for high-resolution CT of chest

evaluates parenchymal lung dz




interstitial fibrosis




bony structures




aortic dissection




with angiography --> PE

Contrast

avoid in pts with renal dz (Cr >1.5)




avoid in MM




d/c metformin 48 hrs before scan




MRI contrast can lead to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis




contrast-induced nephropathy occurs after 12 hrs (aminoglycoside-induced is 4-5 days after)

MRI indications

demyelinating disease




MS




dementia




best test for post fossa, base of the skull, & orbit


acoustic neuromas


pit tumors


small intraparenchymal brain tumors


bone tumors & infections (eg osteomyelitis)


aseptic necrosis of femoral head


spinal cord & discs


spinal tumors

HIDA (hepatobiliary) scan indications

biliary obstruction vs acute cholecystitis




congenital abnormalities of biliary tract (eg atresia)




NOT TEST FOR STONE

Bone scan indications

met bone lesions




osteomyelitis




avascular necrosis of the femoral head

Adrenal scan

localize pheo when MRI/CT is non-diagnostic

Ultrasound indications

gallstones




visualize uterus, adnexa, & ovaries




prostate to guide bx

Cholecystitis ultrasound findings

1) gallstones (hyperechoic white mass causing shadows)


2) pericholecystic fluid


3) thickened gall bladder wall

2 causes of double bubble sign

1) duodenal atresia




2) annular pancreas

Lytic bone lesions

MM



primary bone tumor



mets (lung, renal, thyroid, or breast)

Blastic bone lesions

mets (prostate, lymphoma, breast)




Paget's disease of bone




medulloblastoma in peds

Ring enhancing lesions in brain

toxo




met tumors




demyelinating dz




pyogenic abscess




primary CNS lymphoma




Tb

Hypertensive brain damage

hemorrhage into either:


basal ganglia


cerebellum


pons

Hemorrhage into cerebral hemispheres

AV malformation


aneurysm


trauma


met lesions


vasculitis


cocaine


coag abnormalities

Calcification patterns

Benign:


popcorn


laminated or concentric


central


diffuse homogenous




Malignant:


eccentric (area of asymmetric calcification)


reticular or punctate