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26 Cards in this Set

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FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. excitability: receive/respond to stimulus


2. contractility: can shorten


3. extensibility: can stetch beyond resting length


4. elasticity: resume resting length after stretched

ANATOMY OF GROSS SKELETAL MUSCLE

1. deep fascia


2. epimysium


3. fascicles


4. perimysium


5. endomysium


6. muscle fiber


7. sarcolemma


8. sarcoplasm


a. glycogen


b. myoglobin


c. mitochondria


d. myofibril


I. I band, Z disc, A band


II. sarcomere


(i). myosin filament


(ii). myosin binding head



1. DEEP FASCIA

- tissue covering muscle

2. EPIMYSIUM

- dense irregular connective tissue


- encases all structures in individual muscle

3. FASCICLES

- bundles of muscle fibers in indentifiable muscle


- encased by perimysium...

4. PERIMYSIUM

- collagen sheath


- encases each fascicle


- bundles muscle fibers together to form a fascicle




"encases PERIMeter"

5. ENDOMYSIUM

- tissue rich in reticular fibers


- encase each muscle fiber...

6. MUSCLE FIBER

- contractile cell within muscle


- multinucleated - each muscle cells has a lot of nuclei




* muscle fiber = muscle cell

7. SARCOLEMMA

- plasma membrane of muscle cell

8. SARCOPLASM

- cytoplasm of muscle cell

8a. GLYCOGEN

- stored energy


- within sarcoplasm of muscle cell




- muscle cell works hard during contraction


- requires lots of energy


- needs to store alot for repetitive contractions


- needs oxygen when metabolizing glyco to produce energy

8b. MYOGLOBIN

- oxygen-binding protein


- need oxygen for energy!




- muscle cell works hard


- draws energy from carb glycogen


- if oxygen isn't present @ time glycogen is metabolized -- little energy produced :(


- needs to store alot of oxygen for when glycogen is metabolized so alot of energy can be produced

8c. MITOCHONDRIA

- organelle in muscle cell


- aerobic metabolism yields energy from mito

8d. MYOFIBRIL

- organelle in muscle fiber's sarcoplasm


- chains of sarcomeres.. below




- contractile component of muscle fiber


- arranged parallel to longitudinal axis of muscle


- has repeating dark & light colored areas... I, Z, A





8d.I. I BAND, Z DISC, A BAND

I BAND:


- lighter colored band




Z DISC:


- mid substance of I band


- located in periphery of sarcomere




A BAND:


- darker colored bands

8d.II. SARCOMERE

- region of myofibril


- between successive Z discs


- chains of sarcomeres make up myofibril


- contractile unit of myofibril

8d.II.MYOSIN FILAMENT




(thick filament)

- protein


- anchored in middle of sarcomere


- extends toward Z discs


- contains binding heads that are closer to Z's

8d.II. MYOSIN BINDING HEAD

- resting posture = bent


- location for ATPase enzyme




- ATPase breaks down ATP --> ADP+Pi+Energy


- myosin binding head uses ^ released energy to assume erect posture




- in high energy state, heads extend toward the globular actin.. (later)



8d.II. ACTIN FILAMENT




(thin filament)

- binding site for myosin binding heads


- anchored in Z discs


- entends towards middle of sarcomere




contains:


1. globular actin


2. tropomyosin


3. troponin complex





8d.II. GLOBULAR ACTIN

- active sites


- during muscle contraction binding heads attach here

8d.II. TROPOMYOSIN

- rod shaped protein


- coils around globular actin


- stiffens actin filament




- helps block globular actin binding sites from myosin binding heads during times of relaxation


- serves as backbone of actin filament - allows it to resist tensile force

8d.II. TROPONIN COMPLEX

- made of 3 specialized structures:




1. TnI


2. TnT


3. TnC

1. TnI

- troponin inhibitor


- helps totally block globular actin binding sites

2. TnT

- troponin tropomyosin


- binds troponin complex w. tropomyosin

3. TnC

- troponin calcium


- where calcium will bind




- if calcium's present in sarcomere...


- travels to TnC, is bound, enlarges, + changes shape


- new shape allows it to keep inhibitor away from globular actin so that there are available binding sites for binding heads

STILL NEED TO DO:


SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY


&


ALL OR NONE PRINCIPLE


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!