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121 Cards in this Set

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Perspective taking
"The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling."(473)
Selman's stages of Perspective Taking Level 0
Undifferentiated 3-6yrs. Children recognize that everyone has different thoughts and feeling, but often confuse the two.
Selman's stages of Perspective Taking Level 1
Social- Informational 4-9yrs. Children understand that different perspectives come from different info.
Selman's stages of Perspective Taking Level 2
Self-reflective 7-12 "step into another person's shoes"
Selman's stages of Perspective Taking Level 3
Third Party 10-15 step out of a situation and see how 3rd party views.
Selman's stages of Perspective Taking Level 4
Societal 14-adult 3rd party, perspective can be influenced by society.
recursive thought
thinking about what another person is thinking
contributes to children's perspective learning
when adults and peers explain their viewpoints
close relationships involving companionship in which each partner wants to be with the other
Damon’s three-stage sequence of friendship: Friendship as a Handy Playmate(4-7 years
They say a friend is someone who likes you, who you spend time playing with, you share toys with, you do the same things. It does not have a long enduring quality. They say a friendship can dissolve if one refuses to share, hits or can't play.
Damon’s three-stage sequence of friendship: Friendship as Mutual Trust and Assistance(8-10 years)
More complex and psychologically based. Because she helps me when I'm sad, she shares, I've known her a long time, she never walks away when I'm crying, she helps with my homework. Friendship at this stage is a mutually agreed upon relationship where children like each other's personal qualities and respond to each others needs and desires. It takes more time and effort. Trust is a defining feature...breaking a promise, gossiping are breaches of friendship.
Damon’s three-stage sequence of friendship: Friendship as Intimacy, Mutual Understanding, and Loyalty (11-15 and older)
They have a psychological closeness, they understand each other's beliefs, values and feelings. they want their friends to stick up for them. Their friends are important in relieving psychological distress, loneliness, sadness, fear. Forgiveness is big, and they want people they can tell anything to.
Social competence
The ability to achieve personal goals in social interaction while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others over time and across situations. (PROSOCIAL-POPULAR KIDS FIT THIS DEFINITION)
Dominance Hierarchy
A stable ordering of group members that will predict who will win when conflict arises.
A small group of 5-7 people who are friends.
Peer conformity
Complex process that varies with the adolescent's age, current situation, need for social approval and culture.
Social problem solving skills generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self.
They notice social cues, interpret social cues, formulate social goals, generate possible problem-solving strategies, evaluate probably effectiveness of strategies, and enact a response.
Social problem solving skills generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self.
teaching these skills teachers can intervene as conflicts arise in the classroom, point out consequences of children's behavior and help children think of alternative strategies. research has shown that those who had teachers intervene had gains in social information processing and adjustment.
Social problem solving skills generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self.
effects and benefits of possessing these skills it affects peer relations. children who get along well with agemates can do this well. they might ask politely to play and ask for an explanation when they don't understand a peer's behavior. They rely on friendly persuasion and compromise, think of alternative strategies and resolve disagreements w/out adults. They might suggest creating new, mutual goals, relfecting awareness that how they resolve a current problem will influence future relationships.
Instrumental (Proactive) Aggression
aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate attempt to harm another person. (p. 514) (ex. eye gouger and head butter) most common. Unemotional to obtain a goal
Hostile (Reactive) Aggression
Aggression intended to harm another person (p. 514) defensive response to a blocked goal
Relational Aggression
A form of aggression that damages another's peer relationships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading (p. 514) (ex. teenage girls)
Overt (Physical) Aggression
A form of aggression that harms others through physical injury of the threat of such injury (e.g., hitting, kicking, or threatening to beat up a peer) (p, 514)
Gender Differences in Aggression
“. . . delinquency rises over the early teenage years, remains high during middle adolescence, then declines.” (515) because “antisocial behavior increases as a result of desire for peer approval.” (515)
“Children high in either physical or relational aggression relative to their agemates tend to remain so over time.” (515)
General Characteristics of aggressive children
“And for both boys and girls, persistently high physical or relational aggression predicts later internalizing and externalizing difficulties and social skills deficits, including loneliness, anxiety, depression, poor-quality friendships, and antisocial activity” (516).
General Characteristics of aggressive children: Family / parenting influences
coercive discipline encourages aggression
General Characteristics of aggressive
High aggression people think that everyone is out to get them when it was really an accident
Social-cognitive deficits – kids think there are good things and less cost in performing destructive acts and believe it yields awards and reduces the undesirable behavior of others
Over the top self-esteem – lack of empathy; instead use cognitive distortion techniques such as blaming
Delayed development of morals “. . . prone to self-serving cognitive distortions (such as blaming the victim or minimizing the harm done)” (518).
Bistrategic controllers – aggressive and social skills – can manipulate others – liked by peers
p.g. 519 chart for path to delinquency
Help – parents model, children practice effective ways of conflict resolution – develop internal control 520
When tempted to aggress, they are more concerned about achieving control and less concerned about causing suffering or being disliked by peers (pg. 517)
Hard community = children “ . . . at risk for severe emotional stress, deficits in moral reasoning, and behavior problems” (519).
authoritarian child rearing style
this style is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting; authoritarian parents appear cold and rejecting; they frequently degrade their child by mocking and putting him/her down. Children of authoritarian parents are anxious, unhappy, and low in self-esteem and self-reliance.
permissive child-rearing style
warm and accepting but uninvolved. Permissive parents are either overindulgent or inattentive and, thus, engage in little control. Instead of gradually granting autonomy, they allow children to make many decisions for themselves at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
uninvolved child-rearing style
combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy. Often these parents are emotionally detached and depressed, so overwhelmed by life stress that they have little time or energy for children.
authoritative child-rearing style
this style is the most successful approach; involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting. Authoritative parents are warm, attentive, and sensitive to their child's needs. They establish an enjoyable, emotionally fulfilling parent-child relationship that draws the child into close connection. At the same time, authoritative parent exercise firm, reasonable control.
this style is when a parent is overly concerned about the child that they do not let the child make choices or do things that will give them good experiences
- make reasonable demands for maturity
- enforce them by setting limits and insisting on obedience
- express warmth and affection and responsiveness
- listen patiently to their child’s point of view
- encourage participation in family decision making
- inductive reasoning (e.g., reasoning about consequences of actions to self and to others)
- good natured/easy going
- involved in child’s life (school, homework, activities, etc.)
- nurturing and accepting, but avoids making demands or imposing controls
- complete independence in decision making (regardless of age or context)
- no rules
- no constraints on behavior
- very little give-and-take
- cold, harsh, unresponsive, even rejecting
- parent centered
- forceful
- physical punishment (e.g., spanking, slapping, grabbing)
- verbal hostility (e.g., yelling threatening demeaning, etc.)
- coercive
- uninvolved
A parenting style that is both undemanding and unresponsive. Reflects minimal commitment to child rearing.
- not allowing children to make decisions for themselves
- not allowing children to try new things
- encourage dependence on parents
- handle all problems for their children
Outcomes of Authoritative Parenting
Lively happy mood
High self-esteem and self-control
Less traditional gender-role behavior
Social and moral maturity
Academic achievement and educational attainment
Perspective taking skills
Consequential thinking
Friendly-assertive sociable behavior
Peer acceptance
Emotion regulation
Lower levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors
Better communication skills
Outcomes of Permissive Parenting
Dependent on adults
Poor Persistence at tasks
Poor self control and school performance
Drug use
Outcomes of Authoritarian Parenting
Anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy mood
Hostile and angry when frustrated
(emotional dysregulation)
More misattributions of hostile intent
Fewer social strategies
Externalizing disorders
(e.g., aggressive, disruptive, etc.)
Peer rejection
Lower communication competence
Outcomes of Uninvolved Parenting
Deficits in attachment, cognition, play, and emotional and social skills; aggressive disruptive
Outcomes of Oversolicitous Parenting
Social fearfulness
Social withdrawal
Negative self-regard
Peer rejections
a form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decision making. it grows out of warm , cooperative relationshiops and give and take mutual respect. Parents must communicate expectations and monitor from a distance. They know how much they need their parents support and turn to them for advice, affection
a sense of oneself as a separate, self-governing individual. they rely on their self more than their parents and they weigh their own judgment and the suggestions of others to arrive at a well-reasoned action when making decisions.
interaction between siblings who are close in age have what kind of impact
a more equal footing than parents and children. They talk about feelings, tease, deceive, pretend together. They understand emotions, take perspectives, mature morally, and have higher competence. Positive sibling ties predict favorable adjustment.
Sibling interaction
In middle childhood parental comparisons result in quarreling. They still rely on each other for companionship though.
what family/parental factors predict positive sibling interaction
a good marriage is linked to siblings capacity to cope with jealousy and conflict. good communication between parents serves as a model of effective problem solving. Maternal warmth to both children and mothers who frequently play with their children=positive interaction. warm and supportive parents
Sibling interaction
When siblings get along well, older sibling's competence rubs off on younger siblings.
In adolescence they invest less time in siblings but closeness remains strong
family size now vs. 1950s
avg. number of children in north america- 3.1
currently: avg. number in north america- 1.8
outcomes for the children of never-married parents
Many children display adjustment problems associated with economic hardship, achieve less in school and engage in more antisocial behavior than children in low-SES families.
spousal support needed in dual-income families
The support of the father in household responsibilities is crucial. If he does not help, the mother carries a double load and becomes stressed with less time for the children.
approximate proportion of marriages ending up in divorce 45%.
proportion of children living in a single-parent household 1/4
consequences of joint custody
Transitions between homes and sometimes schools can be hard on children. Their children tend to be better adjusted than their counterparts in sole maternal-custody homes.
parenting characteristics of fathers who only occasionally see their children after divorce
the more paternal contact and the warmer the father child relationships, the less children of divorce react with defiance and aggression (pg. 588). High father child contact is more often seen in families where the mother-child relationship is positive and divorced parents co-parent effectively, communicating and supporting each other in their parenting roles.
Blended or Reconstituted family
When parents, stepparents, and children form a new family structure.
Problems of blended family
switching to stepparents’ new rules and expectations can be stressful, and children often regard step-relatives as intruders. Overall quality functioning depends on which parent forms a new relationship, the child’s age and sex, and the complexity of blended-family relationships. Older children and girls seem to have the hardest time.
Impact of emotional and physical child abuse
Impairs the development of emotional self regulation, empathy, and sympathy, self concept, social skills, and academic motivation. They also show serious learning and adjustment difficulties, including academic failure, severe depression, aggressive behavior, peer difficulties, substance abuse, and delinquency, including violent crime (pg. 598)
Levels of social complexity within individuals
bring to social exchanges more or less
-stable social orientations, temperments, social skills
Levels of social complexity within interactions
The braiding of the behaviors of two individuals into a social exchange of some duration. Dyadic behavior in which the participants’ actions are interdependent such that each actor’s behavior is both a response to, and stimulus for, the other participant’s behavior. They can be positive or negative.
Social complexity: broad tendencies studied at this level
1. Moving toward others (sociability, helpfulness)
2. Moving away from others (withdrawal)
3. Moving against others (aggression)
Interactions are affected by
1. Individual characteristics of participants
2. Short-term and long-term personal goals
3. Understanding of partner’s thoughts and feelings in the situation
4. Repertoire of alternative responses
5. Environmental features
Within Relationships: Succession of interactions between two individuals known to each other.
1. Influenced by past interactions and expectations for future interactions.
2. Closeness of relationship determined by:
A. Frequency and strength of influence
B. Diversity of influence across different behaviors
C. Length of time the relationship has endured.
3. Defined by emotions experienced within them
4. Commitment (to continuance)
5. Uniqueness
6. Like larger social organizations, they include role differentiation, specialization, division of labor, sense of shared membership, and shared culture.
Within Groups: Collection of interacting individuals who have some degree of reciprocal influence over one another.
A. Formed out of common interests or circumstances or formally.
B. Is the structure that emerges from the features and patterning of the relationships and interactions present within a population of children.
C. Possess properties that arise from the manner in which the relationships are patterned but are not present in the individual relationships themselves
D. Affect individual members by:
Status hierarchies
Within Groups Part C: Cohesiveness
(degree of unity and inclusiveness)
Within Groups Part C: Hierarchy
(ordering of individual relationships along interesting dimensions)
Within Groups Part C: Heterogeneity
(consistency across members in the ascribed/achieved personal characteristics)
Within Groups Part C: Norms
(distinctive patterns of behaviors/attitudes that characterize group members and differentiate from nonmembers)
Nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel play
child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
Associative play
children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative play
more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
Make-believe play
a major means through which children extend their cognitive skills and learn about important activites in their culture. Vygotsky's theory, and the findings that support it, tell us that provideing a stimulating enviornment is not enough to promote early cognitive development. Toddlers also must be invited and encouraged by more skilled members of their culture to participate in the social world around them. Parents and teachers can enhance early make-believe by playing often with toddlers and guiding and elaborating on their make-believe themes.
solitary-passive withdrawal
Behavior comprises the quiescent exploration of objects and/or constructive activity while playing alone. At first not really rejected because no one knows who they are.
Consists of on looking (prolonged looking at peer(s) without accompanying play) and/or being unoccupied (doing nothing). Rejected at an earlier time because they are always "hanging" around but too afraid to play.
solitary-active withdrawal
Behavior is characterized by solitary-functional play (repeated sensorimotor actions with or without objects) and/or by solitary dramatic/pretend play. Sometimes aggressive, rejected early.
Parental encouragement
Positive parenting can increase peer relations, increase empathy, increase competence, better school achievement and less antisocial behavior.
Age mix of children
Can promote cognitive, social and moral development. It also increases a young child's cooperation skills, ability to problem solve and develops reciprocity.
Cultural values
Peer relations varies among nations, but is usually higher in more industrialized nations. North American children are more likely to not include a reticent child in their play whereas Chinese children will include these children.
Peer Acceptance
refers to likability-the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner. Not a mutual relationship, is a one-sided perspective
Sociometric techniques
how they identify rejected, popular, average, controversial and neglected children.
To assess peer acceptance, researchers usually use self reports called sociometric techniques, which measure social preferences. For example, children and adolescents may be asked to nominate several classmates whom they especially like or dislike, to indicate for all possible pairs of classmates which one they prefer to spend time with, or to rate each peer on a scale from "like very much" to "like very little"
Another approach is to asses peer reputation
young people's judgments of the peers most of their classmates admire, which identify peers high in social prominence. The classmates school-age children and adolescents identify as prominent - looked up to by many others - show only moderate correspondence with the classmates they say they personally prefer to be with on sociometric measures (pg. 616).
Popular Children
many positive votes (are well-liked)
Rejected Children
who get many negative votes (are disliked)-anxious, unhappy, disruptive, poorly achieving chldren with low self esteem.
Controversial children
who get a larege number of postitive an dnegative votes (are both liked and disliked). Display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors. They are hostile and disruptive but they also engage in high rates of positive, prosocial acts. They are happy with their peer relationships and still have many friends.
Neglected children
who are seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively. they are actually usually well-adjusted, they are not less socially skilled then the average children. They do not report feeling lonely or unhappy about thier social life, and when they want to they can break away from their usual pattern of playing by themselves.
Average Children
do not recieve extreme scores (1/3 of students)
Popular-prosocial children
A subgroup of popular children who combine academic and social competence (p. 616).
Popular-antisocial children
A subgroup of popular children largely made up of “tough” boys who are athletically skilled, highly aggressive, defiant of adult authority, and poor students (p. 616).
Rejected-aggressive children
A subgroup of rejected children who engage in high rates of conflict, hostility, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior ( p. 617).
Rejected-withdrawn children
A subgroup of rejected children who are passive and socially awkward (p. 617).
small groups of about five to seven members who are friends and, therefore, usually resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values. For girls, being in a clique predicts academic and social competence, but not for boys. Clique membership is more important to girls, who often exchange expressions of emotional closeness and support (p. 613).
a more loosely organized group formed from several cliques with similiar values (p. 613).
Dominance Hierarchy
A stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises. Observations of arguments, threats, and physical attacks between children reveal a consistent lineup of winners and losers that becomes increasingly stable in middle childhood and adolescence, especially among boys. Many children seem to use these encounters to evaluate their own and others' strength in a safe venue before challenging a peer's dominance. Over time, children increasingly choose rough-and-tumble partners who resemble themselves in dominance status.
Peer conformity
Parents have more impact on teenagers’ basic life values and educational plans. Peers are more influential in short-term day-to-day matters, such as type of dress, taste in music, and choice of friends. However, the more incompetent and worthless a child feels the more likely to follow peers who engage in early sex, delinquency, and frequent drug use.
Physical aggression
harms others through physical injury--pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others, or destroying another's property
Verbal aggression
harms others through threats of verbal aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
Relational aggression: damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
Time devoted to watching children's educational programs
is associated with gains in early literacy and math skills and to academic progress in elementary school. The more children watch sesame street, the higher they score on tests designed to measure the program's learning goals. One study reported a link between preschool viewing of sesame street and similar educational programs and getting higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, and scoring higher on divergent-thinking test (a measure of creativity) in high school (pg. 630).
Watching children's programs with slow paced action and easy to follow narratives
(Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, Barney) leads to more elaborate make believe play than viewing programs that present quick, disconnected bits of information (pg. 630).
Average time American children spend watching television each week
These figures reveal that each week, the typical U.S. school-age child devotes 24 hours to TV, the typical Canadian child 17.5 hours (p. 619).
Effects of television in relation to violence, ethnic and gender stereotyping, and prosocial behavior
Less peer interaction
"viewing is assoicated with family and peer difficulties, perhaps becasue highly stressed parents and children use it as an escape" (628).
". . .televison violence increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and emotions and of verbally, physically, and relationaolly aggressive behavior" (628).
" . . . television violence "hardens" children to aggression, making them more willing to tolerate it in others" (629).
gives children inaccurate perceptions about the amount of violence in society (those who watch a lot)
t.v. more often depicts minorities in lower status roles ex. lawbreakers, unskilled laborers
women are show "as young, attractive, caring, emotional, victimized, and in romantic and family contexts" (629). also more into careers
men are portrayed as dominant and powerful
influences childrens' beliefs about the roles of men and women, career goals, body-image, and disordered eating in girls
t.v. that is not sterotypical helps reduce biases and positive images of women and ethnic minorities = better views and increased willingness to make ethnically diverse friendships (629)
Effects of heavy home internet use
troubles youths who use Internet communication to relieve feelings of isolation adn rejection are especailly vulnerable to exploitation. Adolescents who lack protectice networks-family and freinds with whom to discuss online encounters and appropriate and inappropriate online behaviors-may be overly trusting and may also find deceptions and harassment in Internet relationships particualry painful. under these circumstances, Internet relaionships may worsen their problems. (pg. 633)
Benefits of small schools and classrooms
Small-class students score higher in reading and math. small classrooms are especially effectieve from kindergarden to 3rd grade. Teachers can spend less time disciplining and more time teaching and giving individual attention. Children show better concentration, higher-quality class participation, and more favorable attributes towards school. In high school students feel more connected and can be more involved. They are more likely to benefit academically, emotionally, and socially. There are fewer drop outs in smaller schools.
children with more years of preschool have a better transition, children with friendly, prosocial styles gained peer acceptance and had a better bond with teacher. Those with aggressive behavior are often times rejected, and peer-avoidance can cause an over dependence on teacher.
in general, grades decline due to less teacher attention and more people. drop out rate is due to tighter academic attention, more whole-class instruction, and less participation. Students must readjust their feelings of self-confidence and self-worth as they encounter revised academic expectations and a more complex social world. Support from parents teachers and peers is needed, as well as parental mentoring and involvement.
Educational self-fulfilling prophecy
Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them. As early as first grade, teachers' beliefs in children's ability to learn predict students' year-end achievement progress after controlling for students' beginning-og-year performance. This effect is particularly strong when teachers emphasize competition and publicely compare children, regularly favoring the best students (p. 641).
How the USA does in terms of cross-national academic achievement and why?
ranked in the low average (almost low performing). This is becuase the US have a generally less challenging and less focused emphasis on school. The US has less equallity in quality of school throughout the nation than most countries. Education is not as well supported and many other countries (particularily Asia) have school on average 50 more days than the US. These countries also value high-quality education for all, not just a select few.
Risks involved with adolescents who work more than 15 hours during high school
drug abuse, drop-out, less connected to family, bad grades (no college), poor mentors, little aspiration, bad attitude towards school
Effects of special class placing versus mainstreaming
Outcomes for high school graduates who do not go on to college
They are more likely to find a job, but nowadays it is very difficult. Between 10% and 20% of those who do not go onto college are unemployed. Jobs they do find are low-paying and have few opportunities to transition into other opportunities.
Planner Couples
both mother and father plan to have the baby
Acceptance of Fate Couple
"If we get pregnant, we get pregnant, if not, thats okay too"
Ambivalent Couple
can't decide weather or not to have the baby. Sometimes yes, sometimes no.
Yes/No Coulpes
one parent wants the baby, and the other one doesn't
marriage stressors after the birth of a child
Time Together, Sexual Relationship, Need for time alone, money, Ideas about how to raise children, Relationships with in-laws
Sexual Relationship
women feel self conscience about their bodies, or it might hurt worse than the first time, breast milk interrupts the mood)
Need for time alone
for women its hard to take time away from baby, don't ask for a long time, 10 minutes of talking (not about kids) but about how the significant other is.
Mangagement of family money
Get insurance!
Relationship with in-laws
If the in-laws (extended family believe in's hard to have a conversation about "we (you and your spouse) don't want you to spank our kids" this could be awkward but it is better to explain your feelings with them, instead of leaving and the in-laws spank the kid...and then it escalades into "I TOLD YOU YOUR FAMILY WAS LIKE THIS" "WHAT DO YOU MEAN MY FAMILY, YOUR FAMILY IS MUCH MUCH WORSE..."
remedies to these stressors
-MAKE time to spend with one another, COMMUNICATION, give one another a chance to be alone, do things that give you a chance to talk and get out (Nelson gave the example of going on a drive in the mountains)
-division of household labors between husband and wife before and after the birth of a child
Marital structure
A marriage is like any presidency within the church. The one applied in class was that of a Bishopbric. The Savior is the president with the husband as the first counselor and the wife as the second counselor. Both are equal roles. The 1st counselor is not higher than the second counselor and visa versa. Both have equality in responsibility and duty. The responsibility of the husband in the family is the provide and protect. The wife's is to nurture. No where does it state that the wife is to cook and clean and do the laundry. The division of household labors is up to the couple. Yes, women tend to do more household chores simple because if they are a stay at home mom, they are going to be home more often. This does not mean, however, that this is her role as a woman. Her role is to nurture.
Presiding: When a Bishop is absent, the 1st counselor presides the meeting. This means making sure all of the things are done in accordance with the desires of the Bishop. A husband, likewise being the 1st counselor, is resposible and accountable for the family. His job as the 1st counselor is to make sure that the home is patterned off of what the Savior would have us do.
Benefits of fathers who play with their children and who are involved with their children's lives
Kids who have fathers who play with them tend to:
- be better emotional regulators and readers
- manage frustration better
- willing to explore new things and activities
- persist longer in problem solving