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319 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

(001) What is the preferred distribution voltage in the Air Force?

7,200/12, 470 volts.

(001) List three functions a substation can perform.

1) Voltage change

2) voltage regulation

3) switching

4) metering

5) converting,

6) frequency changing, and so forth.

(001) Name six major substation components

1. Power transformers

2. Circuit breakers

3. Meters

4. Relays

5. Lightning arresters

6. Batteries

(001) What color indicates that a circuit is energized?


(001) What two main requirements must a switch in a high-voltage electrical circuit meet?

1) Must carry its rated current safely without overheating

2) must have proper clearances and insulation for its rated voltage.

(001) At least how many lightning arresters must be installed in a substation with one incoming & one outgoing circuits?

At least 3 (1 per phase) for both incoming and ongoing circuits. So 6 total.

(002) Which type of regulator has the primary or exciting winding connected in shunt and the secondary or regulating winding connected in series?

Induction-voltage regulator

(002) Which type of regulator uses taps to regulate the amount of induced voltage?

Step-voltage regulator

(002) Name one function of a potential transformer

1) They are used in substations to monitor the high voltage on transmission and distribution circuits.

2) They are used with transfer relays to transfer power from a primary source to an alternate source if the voltage falls below a certain level.

3) They can be used to signal a tap changer on a transformer to either step up or step down voltage.

(002) Which type of instrument transformer requires the secondary side to be closed at all times when the primary side is energized?

Current transformer

(003) What suppresses the arc in an OCB?

Oil (transformer-grade oil)

(003) Name the three main functions of an OCB.

1) To protect the system by opening the circuit automatically in case of a ground fault or other overcurrent situation.

2) To restore power automatically for temporary faults.

3) To provide a means of switching under load.

(003) Explain the difference between an indoor and outdoor OCB.

1) Indoor OCBs are made in a cubicle-type construction.

2) Outdoor OCB type is normally dome constructed. SF6 and similar switches have skirted insulator construction.

(003) How many different ways can an OCB operate?

3 ways

1. Manual- Manual closing & tripping only

2. Semi auto- Manual closing/opening & auto electrical tripping

3. Full auto- manual closing/opening & auto electrical tripping & reclosing

(003) State the purpose of the OCB timer port.

During maintenance the timer port is where we place a timing device that is used to see if the OCB opens in the correct amount of time.

(004) Name three basic functions of a recloser.

1. Automatic testing of the line and restoration of service if the fault has cleared.

2. Selecting the device to isolate permanent faults in a coordinated protective system.

3. Interrupting fault currents in minimum time to protect against conductor burn down and equipment damage.

(004) How does a fault make the recloser trip open?

The recloser's solenoid is set to trip at a certain current. When the fault current reaches that limit, the increased magnetic field moves the solenoid plunger down through the coil, tripping the contact assembly to open the contacts and break the circuit.

(004) When does the sectionalizer operate?

During the time the recloser has opened the line.

(004) Name the main components of a sectionalizer.

1. A set of contacts

2. A spring-controlled trip

3. A solenoid -operating coil

(004) What piece of equipment must we use to back up a sectionalizer?

An additional recloser, the properly sized.

(005) How is an air-break switch normally operated?

Manually or automatically

(005) What equipment does the air-break switch use to break the arc?

Arcing horns

(005) Where are air-break switches normally mounted?

On substation structures or on poles.

(005) What allows the switches of an air-break switch to open and close at the same time?

A gang-operated switch.

(005) How is the arc broken by a vacuum recloser?

The high-voltage contacts are enclosed in a vacuum and, as the contacts separate, the lack of oxygen extinguishes the arc rapidly.

(005) Which switches operate much like a vacuum switch?

SF6 switches

(006) Before installing a high-voltage switch, what data plate information must you check?

The voltage rating and current interrupting rating.

(006) How do you position the vehicle before final placement of the high-voltage switch?


So the operator can observe the switch placement.

(006) What is the first connection you make in connecting the high-voltage switch?

The ground connection

(006) Why must you never let an OCB trip while the oil tank is lowered?

Without the oil to absorb the shock, equipment damage and personal injury are likely.

(007) What do you look for when you inspect and OCB's contacts?

Check alignment and firm uniform pressure.

(007) When moisture is in oil-filled equipment, what problem occurs?

Moisture decreases an oil's insulating strength.

(007) What must you ensure before you "top off" oil-filled equipment?

That the liquid being added to the equipment is compatible with the liquid already in it.

(007) Which items do you check visually in inspecting bushings?

Excessive contamination, cracked or broken porcelain, low oil level (oil-filled bushings), broken or deteriorated seals, fractured metal parts, excessive operating temperature, loose or missing parts, and so forth.

(007) On what does scheduling maintenance on reclosers depend primarily?

1) the severity and number of reclosings incurred

2) the dielectric strength of the insulating oil.

(007) How do you inspect the contacts on vacuum breakers?

Each interrupter has an external indicator called a "wear gap" the provides a way to gauge the amount of contact erosion.

(007) How can you test vacuum breakers to see if the vacuum is adequate to interrupt current?

We can give vacuum breakers a high-potential test.

(007) What piece of equipment can aid you visual inspections of air switches?


(007) State what you accomplish by repeatedly opening and closing an air-break switch.

You can clean the contacts.

(007) Field experience indicates the switch interrupts with gas-filled chambers normally need recharging how often?

Every 2.5 to 3 years.

(008) How often do you check storage batteries?


(008) Once you check the storage battery, what do you record?

Record voltage, specific gravity, level of electrolyte, charging rate, internal and nearby temperature.

(008) What is the gravity reading of a fully charged battery cell in stationary standby service?


(008) Explain what you can add and can not use as additives to storage batteries?

The only additive is approved distilled water. Items that should not be added are acid, electrolyte, or any special powder, solutions, or jellies.

(008) What instrument do we most commonly use to test a battery cell charge?


(009) What contacts can we best clean with a fine burnishing tool or crocus cloth?


(009) How often do you check relay settings?

Once a year

(009) In checking contact resistance of relays, what may be indicated by a high resistance?

Insufficient spring pressure.

(009) What test voltage do you use in dielectric testing of relays that are rated under 6,000 volts?

Twice the rated voltage plus 1,000 volts with a minimum of 1,500 volts AC for 1 minute.

(009) What is the best way to make an operational test of a relay?

With a test current.

(009) On what effect do thermostats, thermal overload, and temperature devices operate?

Heating effect of electric current.

(009) As a general rule, how often do you inspect mechanically operated substation devices?

Every 6 months.

(009) For general maintenance, what type of meter do you use?

A multimeter

(010) What are you looking for during visual inspection of a voltage regulator?

Leaks, cracked bushings, loose connections, corrosion, and similar problems may be noticed before serious problems could develop that could affect the continuity of service.

(010) When you're removing a voltage regulator from service for maintenance, what's your first step in isolating it?

Place the regulator in the neutral or zero position.

(010) What's the maximum time between dielectric oil tests on voltage regulators?
5 years.

(011) What do you do if two successive monthly cell readings show a particular cell low in either voltage or specific gravity?

Check to see that this cell gasses properly on charge. If it doesn't, do not act unless the reading decreases further the next month. If the reading goes lower, an insufficient charge, a short circuit, or impure electrolyte is indicated and the trouble should be corrected promptly.

(011) If impurities dissolved in a battery cell's electrolyte are causing irregular cell operation, how can you correct the problem?

Replace the electrolyte immediately after flushing the cell thoroughly with distilled or approved tap water.

(011) What must you do to keep storage batteries clean?

Keep the battery, its connections, and the surroundings clean and dry by wiping, with a dry rag. Vent plugs must be in place with their gas escape holes clean. If you spill electrolyte or if surrounding parts are damp with acid, apply a solution of bicarbonate of soda or baking soda (1pound of soda to 1 galloon of warm water), followed by rinsing water and drying. Scrape clean corroded terminals or conductors, wash with a soda solution, and thinly coat with petroleum jelly or nonoxide grease.

(011) After repair work on a relay, what must you do before returning the relay to service?

Make complete performance tests on the relay.

(012) How would you test a transformer for a "short"?

By connecting one megger lead to a high-voltage bushing and the other lead to a low-voltage bushing and observing the reading. Test between all primary and secondary bushings to be certain. A reading of continuity indicates a short, and a reading of infinity indicates the transformer is not aborted.

(012) What does a reading of zero indicate when testing a transformer winding for an open?

"Zero" indicates no resistance between two points, therefore the winding is good.

(012) Why must you separate the secondary windings of a transformer when testing for opens?

A false reading could be obtained on parallel-connected secondary windings.

(012) When troubleshooting an oil circuit breaker and you find dirty oil, what could be the cause?

Carbonization from many operations.

(012) List causes and remedies for a circuit breaker that's tripping prematurely.

Causes include a setting that's too low, repetitive closing and jogging, under voltage device and control circuit and auxiliary pilot devices affected by operating circuit, and incorrect rating. Remedies include resetting or increasing the trip setting, checking the load and current peaks against the setting, and checking the circuits.

(013) Why must you not wear coveralls with the top half wrapped around your waist?

Wearing coveralls in this manner increases the likelihood of injury from clothing getting caught in machinery.

(013) What test requirements must hard hats meet?


20,000 volts AC for three minutes.

(013) Can you use rubber glove protectors as work gloves?


(013) What are the requirements for long sleeves while working on electric lines greater than 50 V?

Sleeves must be rolled down and buttoned.

(014) How often must you clean body belts and safety straps?

Every three months.

(014) What two types of soap can we use to clean leather goods?

A neutral soap and saddle soap.

(014) How often do you oil body belts and safety straps?

Every 6 months.

(014) In regard to oiling, in what condition must leather straps and belts be before the bending test?

The leather should contain enough oil to be soft and pliable.

(014) List some advantages belts made of webbing have over leather belts.

- Webbing withstands impact loads better.

- Webbing requires no special care and treatment as leather would

- Webbing can be evaluated more accurately by visual inspection.

(015) State two major reasons for pole climbing accidents.

1) Improper climbing technique.

2) Improper care and maintenance of climbers.

(015) How do you store climbers?

Wrapped in pairs in gaff guards and fastened with their straps.

(015) List several things to look for when inspecting climbers.

Loose or dull gaff; excessively worn, cracked, or torn straps and pads; enlarged buckle holes in the straps, excessively worn stirrups; defective strap rings.

(015) Name three ways to tell whether gaffs are sharpened properly.

Gauging, plane test, and pole cutout.

(015) What do you need to hone that gaff of a machine-sharpened climber?

A pocket-size, smooth Carborundum stone.

(015) What is the average life of a pair of climbers?

5 years

(015) Name two tools you need to field sharpen gaffs that aren't machine sharpened.

A file and a Carborundum stone.

(015) Why must you avoid rocking motions in sharpening a gaff with a file?

This will round the edges of the gaff.

(016) What things must you inspect before attempting to climb a pole?

1) Climbers

2) body belt

3) safety strap

4) hardhat

5) leather gloves

6) pole itself

(016) To what does the positioning of gaffs on opposite sides of the pole lead?

Gaffs will point away from center of pole. This leads to cutouts and falls.

(016) What is the approximate difference in step length when going up and down a pole?

When descending a pole, your steps should be approximately twice as long as when ascending pole.

(016) How does attachment of the ground wire affect climbing?

The climber should not use the side of the pole where the ground wire is attached.

(016)What is the proper placement of the safety strap during climbing?

Fasten both ends of the safety strap to the "D" the ring; not hanging loose.

(017) Which type of manufactured rubber protective equipment is subject to ozone and corona deterioration?

Type 1, natural or polyisoprene synthetic rubber

(017) List signs of chemical deterioration of rubber protective equipment.

1) Corona cutting

2) ozone or sun checking

3) texture changes such as swelling, softening, hardening or becoming sticky or inelastic.

(017) In which ANSI/ASTM specification would find the in-service inspection requirements for rubber insulating gloves?

ANSI/ASTM D-120, Rubber Insulating Gloves

(017) What problem would you most likely encounter with rubber gloves that are a little too big for your hands?

Loss of dexterity

(017) Why does the leather gauntlet have to be shorter than the rubber glove?

The gauntlet does not have the insulation value that the rubber glove has.

(017) How do you wear rubber sleeves in conjunction with rubber gloves?

Tuck the sleeves inside the rubber gloves.

(018) How often must you field air-test rubber gloves?

Before they are used each day and more frequently if you suspect damage.

(018) How do you store rubber sleeves?

In a bag or rolled up.

(018) What are the items to look for when inspecting a rubber sleeve?

Pinholes, cuts, scratches, abrasions, aging corona cutting, oil markings, or other chemical injuries.

(018) What do you do if you find a petroleum product on a rubber blanket?

Wipe it off immediately.

(018) How do you locate defects in a blanket?

The blanket must be rolled twice on each side so that the second roll is at a right angle to the first roll.

(018) What is the electrical testing requirement for rubber blankets?

Electrically test them..

1) upon receipt from manufacturer

2) @ least once a year.

(018) How do you store rubber blankets?

Flat or rolled in blanket rollups or canisters.

(018) How often must the supervisor inspect rubber protective equipment?

Every 6 months.

(019) For what purpose do you use hot-line tools?

To minimize the number of power interruptions or outages.

(019) What is the minimum manufacturer certification test voltage for hot sticks?

75,000 volts AC per foot for 3 mins on wooden sticks, and 100,000 volts AC per foot for 5 minutes on fiberglass and epoxy sticks.

(019) Where do you store hot-line tools?

In bins or on racks.

(019) How often do hot sticks require a moisture test?

1) Upon receipt

2) at least every six months

3) when you suspect moisture penetration.

(019) How often does the supervisor inspect hot-line tools visually?

At least every 6 months.

(020) You find a hot stick that needs cleaning; list the steps in sequence.

1. Wipe stick surface clean with a clean rag.

2. Clean stick surface with an approved hot-stick pole cleaner

3. Wax hot stick with hot-stick wax.

(020) Why must you not use silicone cloths to protect the glossy finish of fiberglass hot sticks?

Silicone has a migrating characteristic and, over a period of time, may hamper refinishing processes.

(020) How many overall electrical tests are required for each hotstick?

Five, four 1 foot segments and one overall test.

(020) What are the test contacts for electrical hot-stick test?

Two spiral springs, 5/8 inch to 1in diameter, or clamps which make contact with the entire circumference of the stick. Springs must be wound of spring steel, 40 (+_5) thousandths inch diameter.

(020) Why do you use a plastic bag to cover the "hot" lead while you're testing a hot stick electrically?

To eliminate corona.

(020) In testing a hot stick electrically, at what rate do you raise the voltage to 80 kV and how long must you maintain that voltage?

Raise the voltage at a rate of 10 kV per second and hold it for 1 minute.

(021) How often must you test the aerial lift controls?

Each day before use.

(021) How many people make up an aerial crew?

At least two qualified workers.

(021) Cite four aerial lift device travel procedures.

1. Drivers must be alert to the fact the vehicle has exposed equipment above the elevation of the truck cab.

2. Backing must be done slowly and under the direction of one person on the ground who has an unobstructed view of the intended path of the vehicle, and of its driver.

3. A truck must not be moved with the boom elevated.

5. In traveling to and from job sites, pin-on buckets must either be removed and stored on the truck or secured in a horizontal position to avoid obstructing the driver's vision.

(021) What precaution must an operator take before lowering the truck's jacks?

The operator must be sure no one else close enough to be injured.

(021) When it's necessary to get within reach of energized conductors with the bucket, what precautions must the operator take?

The bucket operator must wear rubber gloves and sleeves.

(021) What precaution does the operator use if the aerial bucket is operated from the ground controls.

Workers operating ground controls...

1) must be on the vehicle


2) insulated from the ground using primary rubber gloves and other protective equipment.

(022) What tests must we perform on all new, stored, or modified aerial lift devices?

Tested in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and special requirements and do a pretest inspection and acceptance test.

(022) What test do you make on "in-use" aerial lift devices?

They get a daily pretest inspection and a periodic verification test.

(022) If the fiberglass boom is dirty on the preinspection test, what do you do?

Remove dirt with fiberglass cleaner and then wax and buff with a dry cloth for a glossy finish.

(022) What voltage do you use for the periodic verification test?

The voltage the truck will be working near that day.

(022) What is the maximum allowable leakage for the upper insulated boom moisture test?

No more than 100 times that observed in the dry test --never more than 1.0 milliamperes.

(022) State the purpose of the composite upper boom test.

To assure the collective insulation strength of the combined upper booms, air and hydraulic lines, and leveling mechanism together.

(022) How do you test an aerial lift basket without a liner?

Place the basket in the test tank, fill the tank and basket with water to within 6 inches of the top, and place the tester circuit ground on the test tank and a jumper to the truck frame. Put the source electrode in the water inside basket and apply 100 kV DC for 1 minute. Maximum allowable leakage must not exceed 100 uA.

(022) Who is responsible for testing the aerial lift device dielectrically?

Civil engineering or other people trained to work with high voltage.

(023) What size winch cable handles loads of less than 10,000 pounds?

1/2 inch wire rope.

(023) What advantages are there in using a fabric winch cable instead of a wire rope cable?

- No steel strands to cut skin

- Lighter and more manageable to work with

- Non conductive

(023) State the purpose of the boom and winch.

1) To raise, set, pull, and lower poles

2) To load and unload poles from the pole trailer

3) To load, unload, raise or lower pole line equipment.

(023) How many people are needed for boom and winch operations?

At least two people.

(023) How do you position the line truck when the job site is on a crown or slope?

On a position so that you can work on high side.

(023) What can you do if the line truck must be set up on hot asphalt or soft ground?

Place planks under the jack pads.

(023) What piece of equipment do we use to pull a pole?

A pole jack.

(023) How do you compensate for various loads while using a capstan?

Vary the number of turns of the rope from 3 to 6 or more.

(024) Who must the ground worker always face?

The operator.

(024) How do we signal winch operations?

With arm extended to the side and bent at the elbow.

(024) How can you stop all operator action using hand signals?

Holding up a closed fist.

(025) Which form do we use to note discrepancies found on the line truck?

AF Form 1806, Operator's Inspection Guide and Trouble Report.

(025) Name three checks you make during daily use of the line truck.

Preoperational, operational, and postoperational.

(025) State the purpose of the postoperational check.

This check lets the operator identify any damage that may have been overlooked during the day's work.

(025) Whose responsibility is it to maintain line truck fluid levels?

The operator's.

(025) Name problems that can arise for low tire pressure on the line truck.

Uneven tire wear and inability to control the vehicle.

(025) How often do we check the tire pressure? Where do we annotate it?

Check it at least monthly and annotate AF Form 1806.

(026) Why is it best to follow roadways in building a pole line distribution?

It is easier to build, inspect, and maintain the line.

(026) For low- and medium-voltage circuits, how much of the right-of-way must we clear?

An area extending 10 feet on each side of the pole.

(026) How far from the edge of a curb do we set a pole?

2 feet.

(026) State the purpose of a staking sheet.

It shows the pole location, how they're to be installed, and the material require.

(026) What must accompany a staking sheet?

A digging permit, AF Form 103, Base Civil Engineering Work Clearance Request.

(026) List three things you check on a digging permit for before you start digging.

1) See that all areas are cleared

2) Check the back side of the form for special instructions

3) Check for the planning officer's signature

(027) How much space do we leave around the butt of a pole for tamping?

4 inches all around

(027) How deep do we set a 45 foot pole set in normal soil?

6 1/2 feet.

(027) What does a stake driven in the ground in the area where you are going to set a pole mean?

The exact center of a pole to be set.

(027) How do you remove dirt from an earth auger?

By rapidly spinning the dirt off of the auger.

(028) What is the principal objective of the pole unloading operation?

To unload poles so that none are broken and they don't roll onto any of the workers.

(028) Name two ways to bind the pole load so you can remove or cut the stakes and binding wire on the unloading side.

One is to use two trucks with winch lines, the other is to use two or three guy wires.

(028) Which tool do we use to cut the binding wires?

Long-handled wire cutters.

(028) What tool do we use to position the poles once they are are on the ground?

Cant hooks.

(028) What is the preferred height for storing poles above ground?

30 inches.

(028) In what position do we place the pole trailer in relation to the poles for loading?

Parallel to the poles, with the trailer tongue in the same direction as the butts of the poles.

(028) If the poles are too long for the pole trailer, what can you do?

Use one of the long poles as a king pole.

(029) Name three factors that determine the class of a pole.

Length, circumference at the top, and circumference 6 feet up from the butt.

(029) What minimum height and class pole do we use for an unguyed dead-end pole?

30 feet high, class 2

(029) What do we use as the grounding system for the installed equipment of concrete poles?

The reinforced steel rods cast into the poles.

(029) Aluminum poles are commonly used in what types of circuits?

Roadway and area lighting circuits.

(030) State the purpose of a roof on a pole.

To drain rain, melted snow, and other types of moisture.

(030) At what angle do we cut the slant roof?

15 degrees

(030) What is the purpose of a gain in a pole?

To steady, support, and straighten the cross-arm.

(030) How do we determine the height of a gain?

By the height of the cross-arm.

(030) How deep do we cut a gain into a pole?

1/2 inch deep

(030) What do you do to the gain to improve the the crossarm's stability?

Make its surface slightly concave.

(030) What size hole do you drill in a pole for a 5/8 -inch through bolt?

An 11/16 inch hole.

(031) Name two additional pieces of equipment you need when you set poles in an energized circuit.

A pole guard and rubber gloves.

(031) What does it mean to "rake a pole"?

To lean the pole against the direction of pull.

(031) Once the pole is in the hole, what is the next step prior to backfilling?

It must be aligned with the other poles.

(031) What keeps the water away from the base of the pole?

A mound of dirt piled against it following tamping.

(032) Which anchor does not require a pilot hole?

The screw anchor.

(032) Which anchor do we most often use in hard compact soil?

Expanding anchor.

(032) You see that your crew is installing a cone anchor. What type of soil was probably encountered?

Rocky soil

(032) Describe a down guy.

A guy wire that runs from the top of the pole to an anchor in the ground.

(032) State the purpose of a terminal down guy.

They're usually used at the end of a pole line to counterbalance the pull of the line conductors.

(032) Describe a span guy.

A span guy runs from the top of a pole to the top of the next pole or to a stub pole.

(032) What is the purpose of three-eye thimbles on an anchor rod?

This lets you use individual down guys for primary, secondary, and communication circuits.

(032) At what angle do we dig the hole for the anchor rod?

At the same angle as the guy wire.

(032) Why do we use strain insulators in guy wires?

The strain insulator keeps the lower part from being energized if the upper part touches energized conductors.

(033) Name three elements that determine the loading zones for conductors and their supports.

Ice, wind pressures, and temperatures.

(033) How far can a bolt extend into the climbing space?

No more than 2 inches.

(033) How much is the horizontal climbing space for poles with wires carrying 750 volts or more?

No less than 30 inches.

(033) What is the minimum height above a public street that a 7,200 volt primary circuit can be installed on a pole?

20 feet

(033) How far apart must a 4,800 volt primary circuit and a 240 volt secondary service rack be on a pole?

At least 2 feet 6 inches

(033) What is the highest primary distribution voltage you can place in a streetlight circuit?

5,000 volts

(033) Why is armless mounting preferred for open wire circuits?

It's attractive appearance and lower maintenance cost.

(034) Why must a crossarm have a certain spacing and clearance requirements?


1) energized lines must be spaced far enough apart to keep the lines from arcing or shorting together

2) to allow for climbing space.

(034) What is the distance between pole pins on a 4,800 volt circuit?

30 inches

(034) How far from the peak of the pole do we install the first conductor on a pole in vertical construction?

9 inches

(034) In vertical construction, how far apart do you install conductors?

At least 4 feet apart for voltages to 8.7 kV and 6 feet apart for voltages from 8.7 kV to 50 kV

(034) What material types are found in crossarms?

Wood, steel, or epoxy

(034) What problem do you encounter when using glass insulators?

The insulators being shattered from vandalism.

(034) Why type of insulator do low voltage and neutral circuits mostly use?

Spool insulator.

(034) How many nuts and washers are needed for each DA bolt used to space two crossarms apart?

Each DA bolt requires four washers and nuts.

(034) What knots do we normally use to raise a crossarm?

Half hitch at the top and clove hitch at the bottom of the crossarm.

(034) Where do we place the guys on a pole with a vertical construction?

18 inches below the top conductor and 18 inches below the third conductor.

(035) List the the tools you'll need to string a new section of wire?

1) Handtools

2) handline

3) wire cutters

4) wire grip

5) chain hoist.

(035) Why do you not pay out conductors from a non-rotating reel?

Because each turn you remove from the reel gives the conductor a twist that could kink or damage it.

(035) How do we hang conductors on steel crossarms?

In snatch blocks.

(035) How do you install the conductors on an in-line pole?

Raise an inside conductor first, then send up the outside conductor.

(035) What safety precautions must you take in stringing conductors?

Check for energized conductors, wear protective equipment, and ground conductors after they are hung.

(036) Which type of splice produces the most trouble-free connection?

The compression splice.

(036) How does the automatic splice work?

The automatic splice has internal gripping jaws. As you push the conductor ends into the splice, they pass by these tapered haws. When you put tension on the conductors, the jaws clamp down and stay clamped as long as you keep tension on the conductor.

(036) Where do we use hot-line clamps?

In places where..

1) It's convenient or necessary to use hot sticks


2) where the connection must be opened occasionally.

(036) Why do we use stirrups in conjunction with hot-line clamps?

To avoid "burn-through" of the conductor.

(036) What design feature lets you fit the compression tap connector on a conductor without cutting?

The connector has a U-shaped opening.

(036) What two types of troubles can occur with hot-line clamps?

1) Burning of the main conductor at the contact due to looseness and high resistance.

2) Difficulty of removal due to freezing of the body bolt.

(037) What position should the conductors be in before you start sagging?

They are laid in the insulator grooves.

(037) What special tools do you need for conductor sagging?

Conductor grip and chain hoist.

(037) Why do we sag the two outside conductors first?

To balance the pull on the crossarms.

(037) Why do we allow the conductors to creep and for how long?

From 30 minutes to 4 hours so the tension and sag in each span is the same.

(037) List four factors that determine the amount of sag in a line.

Size and material of the conductor, temperature, length of the spa, and loading district.

(037) At what location do we use the sighting method to sag a pole line?

Select a span near the middle of the length to be sagged.

(037) On in-line poles, what is the best groove to use on an insulator?

Top groove.

(037) How do we fasten conductors to insulator?

With tie wires or clamps.

(037) What type of wire do we use for tire wire?

Soft drawn.

(037) What size tie wire would you use on 1/0 and larger wire?

No. 2

(037) Why do we use armor rod on aluminum conductors?

To reduce stresses placed on the conductor.

(038) Name the four transformer installation methods.

1. Directly to pole

2. Cluster bracker

3. Pad mount

4. H-frame

(038) How do we mount the radial cluster bracket to the pole?

Bolted around the pole.

(038) If a transformer is to serve several buildings, where do you locate it?

Closest to the center of the secondary loads served.

(038) How do you mount a 500 -kVA transformer in most cases?

Pad mounted

(038) What are the three ways to mount a small single-phase transformer to a pole?

1. Block and tackle

2. Snatch blocks and winch

3. Boom and winch

(038) Why do we use a tag line when raising a transformer?

The tag line keeps the transformer from bumping into crossarms, accessories, and other units you are raising.

(038) What do you connect to the top and bottom connection points of a lightning arrester?

The top you connect to a primary wire, the bottom to a ground wire.

(039) What causes a low power factor on a distribution line?

Large induction load

(039) What piece of equipment contributes to a large amount of induction?

An idle transformer.

(039) How do you raise the power factor on a distribution line?

By adding capacitors to the circuit.

(039) What do we use on distribution capacitors to discharge them?

Discharge resistors

(039) How soon after the disconnection can we consider a capacitor to be fully discharged?

5 minutes

(040) What kind of sound does a solid pole emit when you strike it with a hammer?

A sharp ringing sound.

(040) How do fungi affect the condition of a pole?

They break down the wood (rot and decay).

(040) In what area of the pole is surface decay most likely to occur the quickest?

At the ground line.

(040) Which affects pole strength more, surface rot or heart rot?

Surface rot.

(040) How often do we schedule poles for inspection?

At least every 5 years.

(040) How can you spot interior deterioration of a pole?

By boring a 1/2 inch hole into the pole.

(040) To what areas on a pole must we give special attention?

The upper portion and areas where crossarms and the other devices are attached.

(040) How deep do you trench around a pole to inspect for rot and decay?

8 to 18 inches.

(040) How do you keep water from puddling around the pole?

Leave a mound of dirt around the pole.

(040) When do we inspect crossarms?

The same time we inspect the poles (at least every 5 years).

(040) What do we use to treat a pole?

Creosote and pentachlorophenol (penta).

(041) When do you replace bolts?

If the bolt head is rusted.

(041) What do you look for in checking conductors?

Uniform sag in all conductors.

(041) Which type of insulators requires the most reliability in service?

Switch-and-bus insulators

(041) When do you clean insulators?

While they're out of service.

(041) What type of cleaning solution is effective for tenacious deposits on insulators?

Muriatic acid diluted with water.

(041) When you replace guy wires?

When they're weak from corrosion or physical damage.

(041) When do you make the initial inspection on a newly installed capacitor bank?

Within 24 hours after energizing.

(041) How long do you let capacitors discharge, and what do you do after they're discharged?

Wait 5 minutes then short the terminals to ground.

(041) What percent of rated voltage can a capacitor withstand?

110 percent.

(042) Why must we clear tree limbs and branches away from overhead lines?

Tree limbs can break off into the lines, cause shorts, and ground out the circuit.

(042) From what equipment item must we do tree trimming?

An insulated aerial bucket

(042) In making a side cut, where do you cut off the limbs? why?

At a crotch; so the limb can continue to grow parallel or away from the lines.

(042) What is the purpose of tying tree limbs off with a rope?

To keep the limbs from falling into the wires.

(042) Why is an undercut necessary in large tree limbs?

To keep from peeling the bark off the main portion of the tree when the limb falls.

(042) Which is the best way to fell a tree?

In one piece.

(042) What do you wear when you're handling chemical plant sprays?

Rubber gloves and protective clothing.

(042) What do you do if your skin comes in contact with poisonous plants?

Wash with warm water or rubbing alcohol.

(043) What is usually the first step in troubleshooting an overhead distribution circuit that has lost power?

Inspect the circuit visually for signs of trouble.

(043) After you make a visual inspection on an overhead circuit that has lost power, what do you do before energizing the circuit?

Check in with the service call desk to see if someone has seen the fault occur.

(043) What must you do before testing an overhead line for voltage?

Open all breaker switches.

(043) How do you use "Danger" tags when you work on an overhead line?

Hang danger tags (signed by the person in charge) on switches opened to "kill" a line, and don't remove them until the work is finished and you are directed to do so by the person in charge of the work.

(043) What type of test are you performing when testing a conductor and you connect one lead from a megger to the end of the conductor while connecting the other megger lead to a water pipe?

You are testing the line to see if it is grounded.

(043) How do you use a megger to test a 3-phase line for shorts?

Connect the megger between two lines for each of the three phases . A zero resistance shows a short.

(043) How do you prepare a 3-phase line to test it for an open?

Short the distant ends together with a jumper or ground all three phases. Test for continuity between all three phases.

(043) When testing for an open line, what is indicated by a megger reading of infinity?

An open

(043) List the three main causes of noises on a power line system.

1) Defective equipment insulation

2) loose connections

3) poor location of ground wire staples

(043) When are loose connections most apparent?

On a windy day.

(043) What types of problems show up in an infrared inspection?

Any condition that would produce excess heat.

(044) What must you do before you work on deenergized lines?

Test for voltage and ground properly.

(044) What size must the ground set be?

They must be of such size as to carry the induced current and maximum fault current that could flow at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the line.

(044) What is the cable insulation requirement for a ground set?

It must be 600 volts insulated rubber or synthetic-covered flexible copper.

(044) After testing for voltage, what is the next step prior to attaching the ground set to the conductors?

Ground the ground set.

(044) What minimum specification must single, temporary grounds meet?

A single rod, 6 feet long, 5/8 inches in diameter with at least 5 feet of the rod driven in the ground.

(045) Why may a broken line require that some of the wire be cut out and replaced?

Wire may have become soft and weak on each side of the break.

(045) What else do you inspect when replacing a blown fuse on a transformer bank?

Inspect the other fuses for discoloration, which indicates overheating and possible weakness.

(045) Name three causes of lightning arrester failure.

1) Dirt

2) mechanical damage

3) lightning.

(045) What condition in the lighting circuits of a building might an open neutral may cause?

May cause some lamps to be brighter while some too dim when the load is out of balance.

(046) What requirement must be met before we can use the aerial bucket truck to make a midspan splice?

The minimum high-voltage resistance.

(046) How do we position the aerial bucket truck to do midspan splice?

So that the boom clears all lines but still allows the worker to face the bad line from the front of the bucket.

(046) List the tools to use when making a midspan splice.

1) Two wire grips (one left hand and one right hand)

2) two grip-all sticks

3) insulated chain hoist

4) three wire holders

5) one hot-line cutter

6) insulated crimping tool.

(046) How much line do you leave between the wire grip location and cut?

At least 1 foot.

(046) What precaution must you take to secure a jumper wire that is in the way?

Anchor it down so that it is a safe distance away.

(046) What do you use to keep the ends of the wire from curling back into another line?

Two wire holders placed on the ends of the cut wire.

(046) What do you use to handle the section of wire that is cut out and the new section that is spliced in?

A third wire holder.

(046) What do you use to remove the wire grips when the splice is completer and the jumper wire and hoist have been removed?

A grip-all stick.

(047) State the purpose of the tool hanger.

It holds several hot sticks.

(047) What tie stick would you use to untie a tie wire?

Fixed-blade and rotary-blade.

(047) How often should you cut the tie wires when you're untying them?

Cut the tie wire each it passes around the conductor.

(047) How many wire tong saddles usually support the wire tongs?


(047) When do you assemble the auxiliary crossarm?

On the ground before you need it.

(047) What makes up the center mast wire tong?

Two wire tongs of a larger size that are spliced together to form one piece or assembly.

(047) What secures the conductors to the auxiliary crossarm?

Wire holders.

(047) What type of chain tightening device does the snubbing bracket have?

Wheel or lever

(047) What are the chain-tightening device and rib-reinforced bracket usually made of?

Heat-treated aluminum alloy.

(047) How far do you raise the conductors above the original crossarm?

Approximately a 42 inch working distance.

(047) When installing the conductors on the new crossarm, how do you keep the conductors from slipping out of the insulator grooves until they are tied in?

Lower the auxiliary crossarm until there is a slight downward pressure on the conductors.

(047) What can you do to make it easier to untie the tie wires in the future?

Put looped ends on the tire wires.

(048) What factor must you observe throughout the job?


(048) How many line hoses and insulator hoods are required to change out a crossarm supporting 3-phase conductors?

Eight line hoses and two insulator hoods.

(048) Within how many feet of the old pole do we usually install the new pole?

2 to 3 feet.

(048) How do you clear the two outside phases from the working area?

Remove the conductors from the insulator, tie a tag line to the covered portion of the lines, and have the ground personnel pull and tag the lines away from the pole.

(048) What is the best method to use when transferring conductors?

Auxiliary arm method.

(048) What is the best method for testing voltage with the high voltage-audible indicator?

Test a live circuit, then a dead circuit, and retest on the live circuit again.

(049) When replacing a crossarm on de-energized system, how do you clear the inside conductors from the work area?

Drive two screwdrivers into the top of the utility pole and place the two conductors on top of the pole between the two screwdrivers.

(049) What is the first step in removing the crossarm from the pole?

Remove the lag screw securing the crossarm braces to the pole and swing them to the outside of the crossarm out of the way.

(049) What types of knots do we use to secure the crossarm to the hand line?

A clove-hitch and a half-hitch.

(049) While waiting for the ground person to send up the new crossarm, what does the electrician on the pole do with his or her belt to ensure the throughbolt stays in position?

Place his or her safety strap over the head of the through bolt.

(049) When installing the insulators on top of the insulator pins, how do you orient the grooves on top of them?

Parallel with the conductors.

(050) Explain the use of a service or facility meter.

To determine how much power has been used by a facility or organization.

(050) Name the types of service meters.

1) dial

2) digital

(050) In an AC circuit, what is the watt-hour meter designed to measure?

True power in an AC circuit.

(050) What caution must we take with current transformers?

The secondary side of CT must be shorted while there is any current flowing in the primary.

(050) When transposing the numbers from the dial meter to a piece of paper, why do you need to start on the right hand dial then work to the left?

The reason for this is to reduce the chance of misreading the meter.