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30 Cards in this Set

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Agnostic



One who holds that the existence of the ultimate cause, as God, and the essential nature of things are unknown and unknowable, or that human knowledge is limited to experience.

Anti-Semitism

hostility to or prejudice against jews

Atheist

a person who disbelieves or lacks belief in the existence of God or gods.

Blasphemy

the act or offense of speaking sacrilegiously about God or sacred things; profane talk

Canon

1. general law, rule, principle, or criterion by which something is judged."the appointment violated the canons of fair play and equal opportunity"synonyms:principle, rule, law, tenet, precept; More2.a collection or list of sacred books accepted as genuine."the formation of the biblical canon"

Christology

is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.

Circumcision

the surgical removal of the foreskin, the tissue covering the head(glans) of the penis

Covenant

an agreement.

Devil

(in Christian and Jewish belief) the chief evil spirit; Satan.

Divine

1.of or relating to a god, especially the Supreme Being.2.addressed, appropriated, or devoted to God or a god; religious;sacred:divine worship.3.proceeding from God or a god: divine laws;

Revelation

1.the act of revealing or disclosing; disclosure.2.something revealed or disclosed, especially a striking disclosure, as ofsomething not before realized.


3.Theology.God's disclosure of Himself and His will to His creatures.an instance of such communication or disclosure.something thus communicated or disclosed.something that contains such disclosure, as the Bible.


4. Also called Revelations, The Revelation ofSt. John the Divine. the last book in the New Testament; theApocalypse.Abbreviation: Rev.

Gentile

of or relating to any people not Jewish.2.Christian, as distinguished from Jewish.

Golden Rule

Matthew 7:12English Standard Version (ESV)The Golden Rule12 “So whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets.

Hanukkah

also known as the Festival of Lights and Feast of Dedication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against theSeleucid Empire of the 2nd century BCE. Hanukkah is observed for eight nights and days, starting on the 25th day ofKislev according to the Hebrew calendar, which may occur at any time from late November to late December in theGregorian calendar.The festival is observed by the kindling of the lights of a unique candelabrum, the nine-branched menorah or hanukiah, one additional light on each night of the holiday, progressing to eight on the final night. The typical menorah consists of eight branches with an additional visually distinct branch. The extra light is called a shamash (Hebrew: שמש‎, "attendant")[1] and is given a distinct location, usually above or below the rest. The purpose of the shamash is to have a light available for practical use, as using the Hanukkah lights themselves for purposes other than publicizing and meditating upon Hanukkah is forbidden.[2]

Hell

is a place of torment and punishment in an afterlife. It is viewed by most Abrahamic traditions as punishment.

Incarnation

The Incarnation of Christ is a central Christian doctrine that God became flesh, assumed a human nature, and became a man in the form of Jesus Christ, the Son of God and the second person of the Trinity. Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient being who is the material manifestation of an entity,god or force whose original nature is immaterial. In its religious context the word is used to mean the descent from Heaven of a god, or divine being in human/animal form on Earth.

INRI

Latin for "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews". These words were hung above Jesus during the crucifixion.

Judges (referring to the Old Testament figures)

A biblical judge (Hebrew: shofet שופט, pl. shoftim שופטים) is "a ruler or a military leader, as well as someone who presided over legal hearings."[1]Following the conquest of Canaan by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel (ca. 1150–1025 BC), the Israelite Tribes formed a loose confederation. No central government existed in this confederation and in times of crisis, the people were led by ad hoc chieftains known as judges.

Liturgy

a form or formulary according to which public religious worship, especially Christian worship, is conducted.

Original Sin

a consequence of Adam's first sin, the hereditary stain with which we are born on account of our origin or descent from Adam.

Paschal Mystery

According to the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Paschal Mystery of Jesus, which comprises his passion, death, resurrection, and glorification, stands at the center of the Christian faith because God's saving plan was accomplished once for all by the redemptive death of his Son Jesus Christ."[1]

Rabbi

a Jewish scholar or teacher, especially one who studies or teaches Jewish law.a person appointed as a Jewish religious leader.

Religion

the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods."ideas about the relationship between science and religion"synonyms:faith, belief, worship, creed; Morea particular system of faith and worship.

Remnant

In reference to God's people, it means those who are faithful to His original truth despite apostasy and opposition. It's in the Bible, Isaiah 1:9. "Except the Lord of hosts had left us a very small remnant, we should have been like as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah."

St. Agnes

She is one of seven women, who along with the Blessed Virgin, are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass. She is the patron saint of chastity, gardeners, girls, engaged couples, rape survivors, virgins, and the Children of Mary.She is depicted in art with a lamb, as the Latin word for "lamb", agnus, sounds like her name. The name "Agnes" is actually derived from the feminine Greek adjective "hagnē" (ἁγνή) meaning "chaste, pure, sacred". According to tradition, Saint Agnes was a member of the Roman nobility born 291 AD and raised in a Christian family. She suffered martyrdom at the age of twelve[2] or thirteen during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, on 21 January 304.Agnes was a beautiful young girl of wealthy family and therefore had many suitors of high rank. Details of her story are unreliable, but legend holds that the young men, slighted by Agnes's resolute devotion to religious purity, submitted her name to the authorities as a follower of Christianity.[3]The Prefect Sempronius condemned her to be dragged naked through the streets to a brothel. Various versions of the legend give different methods of escape from this predicament. In one, as she prayed, her hair grew and covered her body.[4] It was also said that all of the men who attempted to rape her were immediately struck blind. In another the son of the prefect is struck dead, but revived after Agnes prayed for him, causing her release. There is then a trial from which Sempronius excuses himself, and another figure presides, sentencing her to death. When led out to die she was tied to a stake, but the bundle of wood would not burn, or the flames parted away from her, whereupon the officer in charge of the troops drew his sword and beheaded her, or, in some other texts, stabbed her in the throat. It is also said that the blood of Agnes poured to the stadium floor where other Christians soaked up the blood with cloths.Agnes depicted on the Royal Gold CupAgnes was buried beside the Via Nomentana in Rome.[3] A few days after Agnes's death, her foster-sister, Saint Emerentiana, was found praying by her tomb; she claimed to be the daughter of Agnes's wet nurse, and was stoned to death after refusing to leave the place and reprimanding the pagans for killing her foster sister. Emerentiana was also later canonized. The daughter of Constantine I, Saint Constance, was also said to have been cured of leprosy after praying at Agnes's tomb. Emerentiana and Constance appear in the scenes from the life of Agnes on the 14th-century Royal Gold Cup in the British Museum.An early account of Agnes's death, stressing her young age, steadfastness and virginity, but not the legendary features of the tradition, is given by Saint Ambrose.[2]

St. Angela Merici

Angela Merici, or Angela de Merici, (21 March 1474 – 27 January 1540) was an Italian religious educator, who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. She founded the Company of St. Ursula in 1535 in Brescia, in which women dedicated their lives to the service of the Church through the education of girls. From this organization later sprang the monastic Order of Ursulines, whose nuns established places of prayer and learning throughout Europe and, later, worldwide, most notably in North America.

St. Thomas Aquinas

was an Italian[3][4]Dominican friar and Catholic priest who was an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition ofscholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis".[5] "Aquinas" is from the county of Aquino, an area where his family held land until 1137. He was born in Roccasecca, Italy.He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or opposition of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time,[6] Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle — whom he referred to as "the Philosopher" — and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.[7] The works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa contra Gentiles. His commentaries on Sacred Scripture and on Aristotle are an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.[8]Thomas is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church and is held to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines (philosophy, Catholic theology, church history, liturgy, canon law).[9]Also honored as a Doctor of the Church, Thomas is considered the Church's greatest theologian and philosopher. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This (Dominican) Order ... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools."[10]

St. Agatha

One of the most highly-venerated virgin martyrs of Christian antiquity, Agatha was put to death during the persecution ofDecius (250–253) in Catania, Sicily, for her steadfast profession of faith.[6]Her written legend[11] comprises "straightforward accounts of interrogation, torture, resistance, and triumph which constitute some of the earliest hagiographic literature",[12] and are reflected in later recensions, the earliest surviving one being an illustrated late 10th-century passio bound into a composite volume[13] in theBibliothèque nationale de France, originating probably in Autun, Burgundy; in its margin illustrations Magdalena Carrasco detected Carolingian or Late Antiqueiconographic traditions.[14]Although the martyrdom of Saint Agatha is authenticated, and her veneration as a saint had spread beyond her native place even in antiquity, there is no reliable information concerning the details of her death.[6]According to Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda Aurea of ca. 1288,[15] having dedicated her virginity to God,[16] fifteen-year-old Agatha, from a rich and noble family, rejected the amorous advances of the low-born Roman prefect Quintianus, who then persecuted her for her Christian faith.[17] He sent Agatha to Aphrodisia, the keeper of a brothel.Saint Peter Healing Agatha, by theCaravaggio-follower Giovanni Lanfranco, ca 1614The madam finding her intractable, Quintianus sends for her, argues, threatens, and finally has her put in prison. Amongst the tortures she underwent was the cutting off of her breasts with pincers. After further dramatic confrontations with Quintianus, represented in a sequence of dialogues in her passio that document her fortitude and steadfast devotion. Saint Agatha was then sentenced to be burnt at the stake, but an earthquake saved her from that fate; instead, she was sent to prison where St.Peter the Apostle appeared to her and healed her wounds.[18] Saint Agatha died in prison, according to the Legenda Aurea in "the year of our Lord two hundred and fifty-three in the time of Decius, the emperor of Rome."

St. Paul Miki & Companions

hree and a half centuries before, 26 martyrs of Japan were crucified on a hill, now known as the Holy Mountain, overlooking Nagasaki. Among them were priests, brothers and laymen, Franciscans, Jesuits and members of the Secular Franciscan Order; there were catechists, doctors, simple artisans and servants, old men and innocent children—all united in a common faith and love for Jesus and his Church.Brother Paul Miki, a Jesuit and a native of Japan, has become the best known among the martyrs of Japan. While hanging upon a cross, Paul Miki preached to the people gathered for the execution: “The sentence of judgment says these men came to Japan from the Philippines, but I did not come from any other country. I am a true Japanese. The only reason for my being killed is that I have taught the doctrine of Christ. I certainly did teach the doctrine of Christ. I thank God it is for this reason I die. I believe that I am telling only the truth before I die. I know you believe me and I want to say to you all once again: Ask Christ to help you to become happy. I obey Christ. After Christ’s example I forgive my persecutors. I do not hate them. I ask God to have pity on all, and I hope my blood will fall on my fellow men as a fruitful rain.”When missionaries returned to Japan in the 1860s, at first they found no trace of Christianity. But after establishing themselves they found that thousands of Christians lived around Nagasaki and that they had secretly preserved the faith. Beatified in 1627, the martyrs of Japan were finally canonized in 1862.

St. Scholastica

Scholastica was born in 480 in Nursia, Umbria, of wealthy parents and according to Gregory the Great's Dialogues, was dedicated to God from a young age. She and her brother Benedict were brought up together until the time he left to pursue studies in Rome.A young Roman woman of Scholastica's class and time would likely have remained in her father's house until marriage (likely arranged) or entry into religious life. But wealthy women could inherit property, divorce, and were generally literate. On occasion several young women would live together in a household and form a religious community.[3]Benedictine tradition holds that Scholastica lived in a convent at Plumbariola about five miles from Monte Cassino and that this was the first "Benedictine" convent.[4] However, it has been suggested that it is more likely that she lived in a hermitage with one or two other religious women in a cluster of houses at the base of Mount Cassino where there is an ancient church named after her. Ruth Clifford Engs notes that since Dialogues indicates that Scholastica was dedicated to God at an early age, perhaps she lived in her father's house with other religious women until his death and then moved nearer to Benedict.[3]The most commonly told story about her is that she would, once a year, go and visit her brother at a place near his abbey, and they would spend the day worshiping together and discussing sacred texts and issues.[5]One day they had supper and continued their conversation. When Benedict indicated it was time for him to leave, perhaps sensing the time of her death was drawing near, she asked him to stay with her for the evening so they could continue their discussions. Not wishing to break his own Rule, Benedict refused, insisting that he needed to return to his cell. At that point, Scholastica closed her hands in prayer, and after a moment, a wild storm started outside of the guest house in which they were housed. Benedict asked, "What have you done?", to which she replied, "I asked you and you would not listen; so I asked my God and he did listen. So now go off, if you can, leave me and return to your monastery." Benedict was unable to return to his monastery, and they spent the night in discussion.[2]According to Gregory's Dialogues, three days later, from his cell, he saw his sister's soul leaving the earth and ascending to heaven in the form of a shining white dove.[6] Benedict had her body brought to his monastery, where he caused it to be laid in the tomb which he had prepared for himself.[7]Legacy[edit]Austrian €50 coin of 2002Scholastica is the foundress of the women's branch of Benedictine Monasticism.She was selected as the main motif for a high value commemorative coin: the Austria €50 'The Christian Religious Orders', issued 13 March 2002. On the obverse (heads) side of the coin Scholastica is depicted alongside Benedict.Scholastica is the patron saint of nuns, and convulsive children, and is invoked against storms and rain. Her memorial is 10 February. She is the Patron Saint of Nuns. She sacrificed many opportunities for her and her brother, just so they could get closer to God.