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46 Cards in this Set

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Describe the blood clotting process/ three hemostatic mechanism the


First vascular spasm constricts the broken blood vessel reducing hemorrhage.

In platelet plug formation a large mass of platelets aggregate and undergo degranulation.

Degranulation promotes hemostasis.

Coagulation finished the process by clotting the blood and protecting the body from excess blood loss.

The cell that forms ALL cell lines

Pluripotent stem cell

Colony-forming unit

Erythrocyte that has receptors for factors that stimulate development

Precursor cells

Erythroblast and reticulocyte.

Mature cell


Classify the following statements and characteristics with the appropriate method of clotting prevention



The resistance of a fluid to flow. It results from the cohesion of a fluids particles.

It is the thickness or stickiness of a fluid. If it is too high the blood flows too sluggishly.


Re absorption between the bloodstream and tissue fluid is governed by it.

Transfer of fluids is a balance between filtration from the capillary and reabsorption.

If it's too high the bloodstream absorbs too much water raising the blood pressure.

Describe the structure of hemoglobin.

Consists of 4 protein chains.

2 are alpha and 2 are beta proteins.

Each of the protein chains are conjugated to a nonprotein heme group.

This group contains an iron ion on the center.

This center portion will reversibly bind oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Primary polycythemia

Due to cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow.

Pernicious anemia

Occurs when the stomach glands fail to produce intrinsic factor

Iron deficiency

Usually caused by blood loss without sufficient compensatory iron ingestion.


A deficiency or absence of alpha or beta hemoglobin

Secondary polycythemia

Can result from dehydration

Sickle cell disease

Caused by a recessive allele that modifies the hemoglobin beta chain

Describe how blood types are based on large molecules called antigens and antibodies.

Antibodies bind to antigens and mark them for destruction.

One method of destruction is called agglutination in which each antibody binds two or more antigens.

After binding, the antigens are stuck together.

Repitition of this process produces antigen antibody complexes.

These complexes immobilize the antigens until immune cells can break them down.

Type AB+


All of the major antigens

The A agglutinogen

The Rh factor

The D antigen

The universal acceptor

The least common US blood type

Type O-

The universal donor

The most common US blood type

Expresses all of the major antibodies

Expresses the B agglutinin

In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains____.

Are broken down by macrophages into amino acids

In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron____.

Is transported by transferrin to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Which of the following sequence is correct in the breakdown of the non-iron portion of the heme?

Heme, biliverdin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces, urine

Heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces, urine.

Iron is transported in the blood by transferrin. True or false


Free bilirubin is transported by the blood to the liver. True or false.


The pathways of coagulation


Damage to perivascular tissues

Thromboplastin (factor III)

Factor VII

The pathways of coagulation


Factor XII

Factor IX

Factor XI

Common pathway of coagulation

Prothrombin activator

Fibrin cross-linking

Factor III

Factor XIII

Describe the erythrocytes death and disposal

As an RBC ages and its membrane proteins deteriorate, the membrane becomes fragile.

Without a nucleus the RBC cannot synthesize the protein spectrin found in the membrane.

Many of these deteriorated RBC'S die in the spleen.

Additionally, the kidneys can break up an RBC and split the hemoglobin molecule up to release recyclable portions

Hemophilia characteristics

It has sex linked recessive mechanism of heredity.

Most hemophilia occurs predominantly in males.

Classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) is caused by a lack of factor VIII.

Hemophilia B is caused by a lack of factor IX.

What are the components of the circulatory system?

Heart, blood vessels, and blood


Are not cells but small fragments of marrow cells called megakaryocytes.

Complex internal structure: lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, and micro filaments.

They have no nucleus

Describe the ABO group

Blood types A, B, AB, And O form the ABO blood group.

Your ABO blood type is determined by the presence or absence of antigens on your RBC'S.

Each antigen will have a different carbohydrate complex on the surface of the RBC.

Additionally, plasma will contain antibodies.

These antibodies react with foreign RBC antigens.

Cardiovascular system


Movement of O2 to the tissues of the body.

Movement of CO2 from tissues to the lungs.

Distribution of hormones.

Movement of urea to the kidneys.

Distribution of absorbed nutrients throughout the body.

Cardiovascular protection

Formed elements help destroy pathogens.

Platelets work to plug holes in blood vessels due to trauma.

Globulins contribute to the elimination of infectious agents.

Cardiovascular regulation

Bicarbonate buffers acids and bases.

Vasoconstriction and vasodilation due to temperature changes

Three hemostatic mechanism

Vascular spasm

Platelet plug formation

Blood clotting (coagulation )

Platelets play an important role in all three.

Vascular spasm

The first stage in hemostasis

Involves vasoconstriction

Platelet plug formation

The second stage in hemostasis

Involves the disruption of prostacyclin

Involves endothelial collagen exposure

Involves degranulation and serotonin, thromboxane A2 and ADP


The last stage in hemostasis

Also known as clotting

Involves the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Includes intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

In addition to the ABO and Rh groups, there are at least 100 other known blood groups, but they rarely cause transfusion reactions. True or false


Describe erythrocytes homeostasis

Hypoxemia is inadequate oxygen transport and can be detected by the kidneys and liver.

When detected, erythropoietin is produced and secreted.

EPO will stimulate the red bone marrow to produce RBC's.

This will result in an increase of oxygen transport throughout the body.

Thus, the correction of hypoxemia is controlled by a negative feedback loop.

Plasma contains?

Antibodies, fibrinogen, glucose, chloride, hormones

Formed elements of blood contains?

Platelets, neutrophils, erythrocytes, leukocyte, and monocytes.

Explain the consequences if ABO blood group does not match the recipients.

In the ABO blood group, transfusions need to be matched.

It is important that the antibodies in the plasm do not react with the RBC's.

If an incorrect match is made, donor RBC's become agglutinated.

This clumping will occur in the recipients plasma and will affect blood flow to vital organs

Plasma composition

Water represents 92% by weight.

Albumin is 60% of the total protein portion.

The most abundant nitrogenous waste is urea.


Red blood cells RBC


White blood cells WBC