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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Function of the skull

Protection for the brain

Organs of special senses (sight, smell, hearing, equilibrium, and taste).

Opening for the passages of air and food.

The jaws to provide the teeth for mastication

Cranial bones

Which form cranial cavity and enclosed the brain.

Occipital, interparietal, basisphenoid, presphenoid, pterygoid, temporal, parietal, frontal, ethmoid, and vomer.

Facial bones

The bones of the part of the orbit, nose, and face are included within facial bones.

Nasal, maxilla, lacrimal, incisive, palatine, zygomatic, ventral nasal conchae, mandible, and hyoid bone.

paired bones

All bones of the skull are paired except occipital, vomer, hyoid, mandible and sphenoid

scull diagram

scull cavities

Face diagram

dog scull diagram

Cavities of the skull

Cranial cavity

Orbital cavity
Nasal cavity, and,
Oral cavity

Cranial Cavity

Dorsal wall (roof): Frontal, Parietal, and Interparietal.

Ventral wall (floor): Basioccipital and basisphenoid.
Lateral wall : Temporal bone.
Caudal wall: Part of the occipital bone.
Cranial wall: Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.

Orbital Cavity

Dorsal wall: Part of the frontal bone.

Ventral wall : It is incomplete and formed by part of the zygomatic bone.
Medial wall: Part of the frontal, occipital and wing of the presphenoid.
Lateral wall: Zygomatic bone.
Cranial wall: Part of the zygomatic and lacrimal.

Nasal Cavity

Dorsally: Nasal bone

Ventrally: Palatine bone.
Medially: There is a septum which divides the nasal cavity into two similar halves.

Laterally: By maxilla and part of the incisive bone.
Caudal: Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone. However, it is Almost open for respiration.

Oral Cavity

Dorsally: Palatine process:

Ventrally : No bony boundary, Instead there are tongue and Muscles.
Laterally: Cheek teeth.
Canially: Incissor teeth
Caudally: Communicate with the

Paranasal sinuses

These are the cavities in the bones of the skull, lined by mucous membrane and communicate with the exterior. Paranasal sinuses develop as an outgrowth of the nasal cavity and hence they all directly or indirectly drain into the nasal cavity.

Frontal sinus
Maxillary sinus
Palatine sinus
Sphenoid, and Lacrimal sinus

Frontal Sinus Ox

Frontal sinus of ox is wide located under

The Frontal bone. It has many chambers.
Important diverticula are:
Postorbital diverticulum
Nuchal divertulum, and
Cornual diverticulum

Frontal sinus Horse

Frontal sinus are not extensive in horse. They are divided into two parts. They have no diverticula as found in ox. The frontal sinuses are communicated with the maxillary sinus by fronto-maxillary opening.

Maxillary Sinus of Ox

Maxillary sinus of ox is a single cavity located under the maxillary and lacrimal bone and have no communication with the frontal sinus.

Maxillary Sinus of Horse

Maxillary sinus of horse have two

chambers viz, Cranial and caudal
chamber. The caudal Chamber
communicates with the frontal sinus
By fronto-maxillary opening.

Foramina of the Skull and Their Contents

Foramen magnum - Medulla oblongata and its coverings, Vertebral arteries, Cranial and caudal spinal arteries.
Jugular foramen - IX, X, XI cranial nerves.
Ethmoid foramen - Ethmoid n. and vessels.
Optic foramen - II (optic) cranial nerve
Maxillary foramen - Infraorbital n. and vessels
Supraorbital foramen - Supraorbital a. and v
Infraorbital foramen - Infraorbital n. and a.
Incisive foramen/canal - Palatine a. & n
Lacrimal foramen/canal - Nasolacrimal duct

Foramina diagram equine

Foramina diagram bovine

Tooth diagram

Formula of Teeth

Horse: 2x(In 3/3,C1/1,PM3/4,M3/3)=42

Ox: 2x(In 0/3,C 0/1, PM 3/3, M 3/3)= 32

Sheep/Goat: Like ox.

Dog: 2X(In 3/3, C1/1, PM 4/4, M2/3)=42

Chicken: No teeth, instead they have horny papillae on oral cavity.

Joints of the Skull

Fibrous joints: The segments are united by fibrous tissue and the joints are immovable.

(a) Suture:
Sutura serrata: With interlocking margins,e.g. Interfrontal suture, Frontolacrimal suture etc.
Sutura squamosa: the joints between squamous part of the temporal and perietal bone.
Sutural plana:When the edge of the joint is plane,e.g Internasal bone of the skull.
(b) Gomphosis: Implantation of the teeth in the alveoli.

Cartilaginous joint

Cartilaginous joint: When the uniting media of the joints are made up of hyaline cartilage. E.g. Intermandibular joint.

Synovial joint

Synovial joint or true joint: when a joint cavity, with membrane and joint capsules are present in a joint for its movement, this joint is called true or synovial joint, e.g Temporo-mandibular articulation

Synovial joint diagram

Muscles of the Head Region

1. Levator nasolabialis: To raise the maxillary lip and dorso-lateral part of the nostril.
2. Levator labii maxillaris: To elevate the muzzle and maxillary lip.
3. Caninus: Pull nostril caudally.
4. Depressor labii maxillaris: Depressed the maxillary lip and ventro-lateral portion of the nostril.
5. Zygomaticus: To retract the angle of the lip.
6. Buccinator: Assist in mastication.
7. Mylohyoideus: Raise the tongue.
8. Masseter: mastication.
9. Orbicularis oris: To close the lip.
10. Orbicularis oculi: To close the eye lid