Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

263 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Physical Change

Change in a substance's appearence. Can be reversed. For example (Water to Ice, Ice to water)

Chemical Change

Creating a new substance, can not be reversed. Carbon combining with oxygen to form CO2.


The smallest particle of matter.

Made up of Electrons, Protons and Neutrons. Uncharged.

Atomic Number

Number of protons in an atom

Atomic Mass

Number of neutrons + protons in an atom. Relative to Carbon-12 and the most abundant/average isotope of an atom.


Atoms of the same element containing same amount of protons but different amount of neutrons. Therefore same atomic number, but different atomic mass.


An atom that has gained or lost an electron, therefore becoming electronically charged.


Positive Ion, Made from metals and hydrogens. Lost an electron.


Negative Ion, Made from Non-metals. Gained an electron.

Ionic Bond

The force of attraction between two ions of opposite charges, in order for atoms to gain full outer shells.

Conducts electricity when in liquid and solution form.

Strong, High melting point.

Ionic Compounds/Giant Ionic Lattices.

Giant Lattice of regular alternating pattern of negative and positive ions, ionically bonded together.

Solid at room temperature and have high melting and boiling points.

Use Sodium Chloride example

Covalent Bonds

The force of attraction between two non-metals that are sharing electrons with each other in order to gain full outer shells.

Weak, low melting point

Does not conduct electricity in liquid form because consist of free moving molecules

Covalent compound

When three or more non-metals are bonded together by covalent bonds

Giant covalent lattices

A crystal made up of repeating pattern of atoms joined together by covalent bonds.

E.g Diamond, Graphite and Silicone Oxide


Giant covalent Lattice made up of carbon atoms, in which every carbon atom is covalently bonded to 3 other carbon atoms in a pyramid arrangement.

Hardest Known substance. Shiny and Sparkly, Melting point of over 3500C, does not conduct electricity, and used in drill heads and jewelry.


Layers made up of carbon atoms covalently bonded together in hexagonal arrangement.

Each layer is connected to the other by weak intermolecular forces, meaning the layers can easily slide over each other, making graphite a good lubricant.

Soft and Slippery, Dull black or opaque, Conducts electricity because of free moving electrons, melting point over 3500 and used as lubricant or lead.

Silicone Oxide

Has a structure where each silicon atom is joined to 4 oxygen atoms and each other atom is joined to 2 silicon atoms. Main ingredient to glass.


Small particle made from two or more atoms joined together.


A substance made from only one type of atom


A substance made from two or more different elements joined together


A substance made of two or more elements or compounds mixed but not joined.

Group 1 Metals (alkaline metals/hallides)

Found in group one of the periodic table. As you go down the group the atoms get more reactive but there melting point decreases and they get softer.

Reactivity increases because the valence electrons are further away from the nucleus and the elements are trying to lose electrons

Group 7 Halogens

Found in group 7 of the periodic table. As you go up the group the atoms become more reactive but there melting point decreases.

There reactivity increases because the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus as they are trying to gain electrons.

Noble gases

Un-reactive, found in group 8 of the periodic table. Full outer shells.

Helium: Used in ballons as it is lighter than air and un-reactive

Argon: Used in filament lamps as it is un-flammable and un reactive.


Turn blue litmus paper red.


Reactive with reactive metals, metal oxides and metal carbonates to create salts.

Normally start with hydrogen atom.


Turn red litmus paper blue.


Soluble bases are called alkaline.


The reaction between acids and bases, causing them to cancel out each other properties forming a neutral substance.

Making soluble salts from Insoluble bases

Add insoluble bass to a beaker of acid. Gently heat up and swirl mixture. Then use filter paper to filter the contents and crystallize the filtrate leaving it to evaporate creating salts.

Making salts from soluble bases (Alkaline)

Slowly add acid to a beaker of alkaline dyed with universal indicator using a burette. As soon as the indicator changes color stop the reaction. Redo this process several times in order to get accurate results. Then filter solution and allow it to crystalize by evaporating remaining liquid. Salt should form.

What is needed in order for a Reaction to occur?

In order for a reaction to occur, there must be a specific orientation in the collisions between substrates and active sites and the collisions must have sufficient energy.

Enzymes (C5)

Enzymes are biological catalyst that speed up rate of reactions without being used up.

Active site and substrate

Enzymes have active sites specifically shaped for certain substrates. In order for a reaction to occur the substrate must collide with the active site and remain in place. If a collision is too violent or to frequent, the active site will lose it's shape and become denatured.

Concentration (in terms of speeding up rate of reactions)

When there is a higher concentration of particles, the chances of collisions between particles increases meaning more frequent collisions making the rate of reaction increase.


At higher temperatures, particles are filled with more kinetic energy and therefore move at a much faster speed. Chances of collisions increasing leading to more frequent collisions therefore increasing rate of reaction.

Larger surface area

Increases surface area allows more particles at the surface of the substance are exposed to collisions.

Paper Chromatography

A technique used to separate mixtures of pigments or dyes in order to test the purity of a substance.

A mixture of dye/pigments is placed on a piece of paper which is then placed vertically in a shallow solvent. The solvent then moves up the paper and the more soluble compound in the dye /pigments will move up faster causing the dye to split.

Melting point and Boiling point (C6)

Different liquids and solids have different boiling and melting points.

If impurties are found in a solid, the solid will have a lower melting point the usual pattern of intermolecular forces are disrupted making it easier to melt.

If impurites are found in liquids however, the boiling point of the liquid will increase because intermolecular forces that weren't there before will have been created.


Filtration is used to separate insoluble substances from soluble substances or solid from liquid substances in a mixture.

Soluble/liquid substances can pass through the filtration, whilst solid and insoluble substances get trapped.


Crystallization in the method used to separate solids dissolved in liquid from liquid. We do this by allowing the mixture to evaporate and cool down, leaving only the solid substance remaining.


Distillation is used in order to separate two liquids using their boiling points. The mixture is heated and the purer liquid evaporates first. The vapor is then condensed in order to collect the substance back in liquid form

Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is used to separate two liquids of similar boiling points. We do this using a fractional column which increases the surface area for condensation meaning purer fractions are produced.

Testing for oxygen

Placing glowing splint in a test tube full of gas. If oxygen is present, splint should relight.

Testing for Hydrogen

Place burning splint inside test tube of gas. If hydrogen gas is present, squeaky pop sound should occur

Testing for carbon dioxide

Bubble gas through delivery tube into lime water. If carbon dioxide is present, lime water should turn cloudy.

Testing for Ammonia

Burn Ammonia Hydroxide in a test tube and collect any gas that is formed. Test gas with damp red litmus paper. If present, litmus paper should turn blue.

Testing for Chlorine

When chlorine is dissolved in water the solution is acidic. Therefore test chloride solution with damp blue litmus paper which should turn red.

Identification of Cations (C6)


Sodium Hydroxide: Ammonia gas is produced without warning.

Ammonia Hydroxide: No reaction

Identification of Cations (C6)


Sodium Hydroxide: Light blue ppt. should form, insoluble in excess

Ammonia Hydroxide: Light blue ppt. Soluble in excess turning solution dark blue.

Identification of Cations (C6)

Iron (II)

Sodium Hydroxide: Green ppt should form Insoluble in excess.

Ammonia Hydroxide: Green ppt should form, insoluble in excess.

Identification of Cations (C6)

Iron (III)

Sodium Hydroxide: Red Brown ppt should form, insoluble in excess

Ammonia Hydroxide: Red brown ppt should form, insoluble in excess

Identification of Cations (C6)


Sodium Hydroxide: White ppt should form, soluble in excess giving colorless solution.

Ammonia Hydroxide: White ppt should form, soluble in excess giving colorless solution.

Identification of Anions (C6)


Cl -

To a solution of Chloride add a few drops of dilute nitric acid add silver nitrate.

If present, white ppt of Silver Chloride should form.

Identification of Anions (C6)


SO4 -

To a solution of Sulphate add Hydrochloric acid and barium solution.

A white ppt of barium sulphate should form.

Identification of Anions (C6)


CO3 -

Add dilute hydrochloric acid to solid carbonate, and collect any gas formed.

Pass gas through lime water. If Carbonate is present limewater should turn cloudy.

Identification of Anions (C6)



Warm nitrate with small amount of sodium hydroxide solution and aluminum power. Collect any gas formed.

If present Gas should turn red litmus paper blue. Ammonia evolved.

Properties of Metals

Conduct Electricity

Conduct heat

High Tensile Strength (High Strength in regards to tension)

Ductile: The ability to be stretched to form wires

Malleable: The ability to be hammered into shape or made into sheets.

Lustre: Ability to give off a glow

High density, Melting points and boiling points.


In order to make metals stronger, two pure metals are combined together to form an alloy.

This means that atoms of different sizes will be placed together disrupting the regular pattern of atoms that allowed the layers to slide.

Reactivity Series

Potassium Hydrogen

Sodium Copper

Calcium Silver

Magnesium Gold





Displacement reaction

A reaction where the more reactive element displaces the less reactive element.


The process of gaining oxygen in a reaction or losing electrons.

The atom that has been oxidised is the reducing agent


The process of losing oxygen in a reaction or gaining electrons.

The atom that has been reduced is the oxidising agent

Thermite reaction

Mixture of aluminum and iron oxide is heated, and aluminum displaces iron to form aluminum oxide. This reaction is used to mend railways. Very exhothermic


Rust is produced when Iron comes in contact with oxygen and water. Impurities such as salt can speed up the process of rusting

Controlling Rust

Surface protection:

Protecting iron with oil and grease: Not very effective cause its rubs off easily

Covering with plastic or paint: keeps off water and oxygen

Iron can be coated with another metal, like a coat of paint.

Controlling Rust

Sacrificial Protection

When Iron is coated with a more reactive metal, the oxygen and water will want to react with that metal instead of with the iron. Even if the metal is scratched it will still protect the Iron.

Covering iron with zinc is called galvanising

Controlling Rust

Cathodic Protection

If we connect a more reactive metal to Iron we create a cell. The more reactive metal decomposes pumping electrons into the less reactive metal, therefore protecting it.


- Fixed Shape and volume

- Tightly Packed atoms in a regular pattern vibrating on a specific point

- Can not be compressed

- Atoms move slowly and with a very close gap of separation as there is not much kinetic energy


- Fixed volume, but takes up the shape of the container it is placed into

- Can not be compressed

- Atoms are tightly packed together but in disorder

- Particles move somewhat freely


- No fixed shape or volume

- Can be Compressed

- Large gap of separation between particles

- Particles move around rapidly


The rate at which an object covers distance


The rate at which an object changes its position


Distance covered in a specific direction

Kinetic Theory

The picture of matter made out of particles. We can explain the properties of matter by explaining how their particles behave.

Temperature kinetic Energy

When a substance is heated, the particles inside gain kinetic energy, and therefore begin to move around more and with a greater gap of separation to the point where they break the intermolecular forces holding the atoms together.

Pressure (Kinetic Energy)

Pressure is caused by gas particles hitting the sides of their container. Increase in kinetic energy causes the frequency in which particles hit the side of the container to increase therefore increasing pressure.

Thermal expansion

The tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature.

When a substance is heated the particles move quicker and at a greater gap of separation therefore in order to make up for this need of more space, the object expands.

Why do railways have gaps?

Railways have gaps in order to accommodate for the possibility of thermal expansion during the summer when the rails get more heat.


For Molecules to evaporate. They need to be located near the surface of a body of water, be moving in the proper direction and have the sufficient enough energy to overcome the liquid phase intermolecular forces.

Factors that increase the speed of evaporation

- Higher temperature/kinetic energy: High energy molecules can overcome the intermolecular forces and break free. However, when the higher energy molecules break free, the temperature of the body of water decreases.

- Surface area: More water exposed to the air so more molecules can escape at once

Wind speed also increases rate of evaporation.

Transfer of electrons

When a polythene rod is rubbed with a cloth (friction), the negative electrons from the cloth get transformed to the rod. This excess of negatively charged electrons causing the rod to now have a negative charge, and the shortage of electrons on the cloth causes it to have a positive charge. Negative charges attract it each causes the two objects to cling to each other.


Electrons are bound firmly to their atoms, making it less likely for the electrons to be knocked off, therefore making it unable to conduct heat.


Electrons can move freely from atom to atom, meaning it can conduct electricity.

Current Electricity

The flow of electrons around a wire

Direction of flow of electrons in a circuit

Negative to positive

conventional current

The direction in which positive charges would flow, positive to negative.


Used to measure current along a circuit.

Placed in series


Used to measure voltage along a circuit. Connected in parrallel.

Potential difference

The energy per unit charge between two points

Electro motive force

The energy per unit charge provided by a battery or cell in order to push current around a circuit.

Ohm's Law

Ohm's law states that potential difference is directly proportional to the current through a resistor at a constant temperature.

Law of Reflection

The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection

Properties of an image found in a plane mirror

- Virtual

- Laterally Inverted

- Same size as the object

- Upright

- Same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror.

Real image

The light passes through the image before entering the eye. Can be projected on a screen

Virtual Image

Does not pass through the image before entering the eye, the eye imagines where the rays would intersect behind the image.

Can not be projected on a screen.


The bending of light when it enters a medium of higher optical density

Critical angle

When passing from a medium of higher density to lower density, The incidence angle at which the angle of refraction is 90 degrees.

Total internal reflection

When the angle of incidence is greater than 90 degrees when a ray is passing from a denser medium to a less dense medium, the ray will reflect back into the object.

Optical fibres

Used to travel light from point A to point B, even through many curves and turns. This is because the rays inside hit the sides of the fibre at an incidence angle greater than the critical angle and therefore the light beams reflect back into the optical fibre.

Medical instruments and telecommunitcations

Different types of electro magnetic waves

Gamma rays


Ultra violet rays

Visible light




Properties of all electro-magnetic waves

Travel through a vacuum

Travel through vacuum at the speed of light


The amount of matter present in an object


The force of gravity acting on a mass

Measuring density of irregular objects

Weigh and put in beaker full of water and record amount of water that spills out.

Measuring density of water

Measure volume in a beaker and measuring mass by subtracting the weight of the beaker with water by the weight of the beaker.


The tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion.

Greater mass = Greater inertia.

Hook's law

The extension of a spring is proportional to it's load

Resultant Force

The sum of all the forces acting on an object added together. A stationary object with zero resultant force will remain stationary. A moving object with zero resultant force will move at a constant speed and an object with a resultant force greater than one will accelerate in that direction.

Newton's first law

An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion unless an unbalanced force is acting upon it.

Radioactive Decay

The process of an atom trying to make itself stable. By doing so, it decays releasing radioactivity.

3 types of radioactive emisions (study in book)

Alpha Particles, Beta Particles and Gamma Rays

Ionizing / Ionizing ability

The process of creating ions.

The ability in which an atom/particle can create ions

Background radiation

The radiation found everywhere, in space, lights, rocks, the ground etc.

Alpha Decay

During an Alpha decay, the nucleus will emit an alpha particle, meaning it will lose 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Therefore the atom turns into a different element by losing 2 atomic numbers and losses 4 in terms of atomic mass.

Beta Decay

During a Beta Decay, a neutron is turned into a proton and an electron. However, only the electron can leave the atom, meaning the atom gains a proton number of one.

Half life

The time taken for the number of unstable nuclei of a particular isotope to halve.

Conservation of energy

Energy can not be created or destroyed, it can only be transferred.

Renewable energy

energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.

Wave energy

The sea rises and falls in forms of waves. The kinetic energy produced is then converted into electrical energy by machines.

(Wind) ---> Kinetic -----> Electrical

Advantages and Disadvantages of wave energy

Renewable form of energy that doesn't produce harmful gases. No fuels required.

Does not produce huge amounts of energy, slightly inefficient. Expensive

Tidal Energy

Gravity pulls water back down into the sea when it has reached the shoreline and the kinetic energy produced is then used to spin turbines producing electrical energy

Gravitational -----> Kinetic -----> Electrical

Advantages and disadvantages of Tidal Energy

Renewable form of energy, no fuel cost and doesn't emit harmful gases. Very reliable and we are able to gauge the amount of energy produced.

Destroys Natural habitat and expensive


Dams are built between higher bodies of water and lower bodies of water. Gravity pulls water through tubes in the damn which is used to spin turbines producing electrical energy.

Gravitational -----> Kinetic -----> Electrical

Advantages and disadvantages of Hydroelectric power

Renewable form of energy, no fuel cost and nor harmful gases emitted. Very reliable and we are able to gauge the amount of energy produced.

Flood farmland forcing people out of their homes, expensive.


Steam and hot water produced from hot rocks or volcanoes deep underground are used to spin turbines and produce electrical energy

Internal ----> Kinetic -----> Electrical

Advantages and disadvantages of

Renewable form of energy, No fuel cost, and doesn't emit harmful gases.

Not all areas have access to volcanoes or hot rocks.

Nuclear fission

energy is released through the splitting up of atoms in the form of heat. The heat is then used to boil water and the vapor created to spin turbines producing electrical energy.

Nuclear -----> Internal ------> Kinetic ----> Eletrical

Advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear fusion

Huge amounts of energy formed from little radioactive material. Raw materials are relatively cheap, and no harmful gases are produced.

Non-renewable form of energy, very expensive and large in size. Difficult to dispose of toxic waste and risk of incident/leakage.

Solar energy

Radiation from the sun is collect by solar panels and converted into electrical energy

Radiation ---> Electrical

Advantages and disadvantages of Solar energy

renewable, no harmful gases produced, Solar panels last a very long time

Very inefficient, expensive.

Nuclear fusion

The combination of nuclei to release huge amount of energy

Advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear fusion

No harmful gases produced, fuels are plentiful, Vast new source of energy.

Non-renewable, Expensive, Large in size and currently in development.










All living things move, to find food, sunlight etc


Getting energy from food to carry out cell processes


Detecting changes in the environment and being able to adapt to them


All living things grow


Creating new generation of species


Removing waste from the body


Getting energy from food and using food as an energy supply.


Controls cell activity and contains cell DNA


Site of chemical reactions, fills cell


Used for respirtation

Cell Membrane

Controls what goes in and out of the cell

Cell wall

Maintains cell structure and shape and helps support plant


Helps with the process of photosynthesis by absorbing sunlight through chlorophyll

Large Vacuole

Stores food and waste

Differences between Plant cells and animal cells

Animals cells dont have cell wall, Chloroplast and have a few small temporary vacuoles instead of one large permanent one.

Root Hair cells

Function: To increase surface area for absorption of water and other minerals


- Large surface area

- Long in Shape

- Placed in the roots where most absorption occurs

Red Blood cells

Function: carry oxygen to the rest of the body and carbon dioxide back to the lungs


- Small circular shape to fit through bloodstream easily

- Biconcave; more surface area for gas exchange

- No nucleus; more space for haemoglobin

- Filled with haemoglobin to store oxygen


The net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, down a concentration gradient.

Diffusion in Lungs

Oxygen in the lungs is diffused into the bloodstream through the alveoli's and capillaries. Because there is a greater concentration and oxygen in the lungs, the oxygen will diffuse from the lungs into the capillaries. The concentration gradient is maintained, because there is a constant flow of blood.


The diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration (dilute solution) to a region of their lower concentration (concentrated solution), through a semi-permeable membrane.

Turgid, flaccid and plasmolysed plant cell

Turgid: Plant is filled with water because the concentration of water was greater on the outside of the plant than inside

Flaccid: Low concentration of water inside plant

Plasmolysed: Plant cell has shrunk and peeled off cell wall because of lack of water.

Hypertonic, Isotonic and Hypotonic red blood cells

Hypertonic: deformed because of lack of water due to their being a higher concentration of water inside the cell than outside

Isotonic: Same concentration of water inside and outside the cell

Hypotonic: Cell burst because it was filled with water due to there being a higher concentration of water outside the cell than inside.

Osmosis in root hair cells

Osmosis occurs in root hair cells when there is a higher concentration of water in the soil than in the root hair cells. When this happens, water will diffuse into the root hair cell, carry dissolved minerals inside it.


The fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates by using energy from sunlight

Photosynthesis formula

Water + Carbon Dioxide -----> Oxygen + Glucose

Nitrates in plants

Nitrates are required in plants because they combine with glucose to form amino acids, which are need to make protein. If Nitrates aren't present, the growth of the plant will be stunted, the stem will be weakened and the leaves will die.

Magnesium in plants

Magnesium forms part of the chlorophyll molecule, helping the plant absorb sunlight. If it is not present, the plant won't be able to absorb sunlight turning the leaves yellow.


Farmers use fertilizers in order to make their crops grow faster. However, when they use excess fertilizer, the rain washes the excess fertilizer into nearby lakes. This makes the algae at the top of the lake grow rapidly, blocking sunlight from the algae at the bottom of the lake. The algae at the bottom of the lake then dies due to lake of sunlight and bacteria is needed to decompose them. Bacteria need oxygen to function and the lack of oxygen in the lake makes all the animals die. As the animals die, more bacteria is needed in order to decompose their bodies adding to the lack of oxygen. Because of the lack of oxygen, everything including bacteria dies.

Waxy Cuticle layer

Found at the top of the upper epidermis Decreases water loss from leaf and is transparant to allow sunlight through

Upper Epidermis

Supports Leaf when turgid, covered by waxy cuticle layer. Few Stomata found here.

Palissade mesophyll layer

Cells tightly packed, and filled with chloroplast in order to absorb sunlight.

Spongy mesophyll layer

Loosely packed cells and air spaces in between for diffusion of gas


Covered by lignin to make it impermeable, made up of dead cells, conducts water and minerals. One way flow. Xylem supports phloem


Two way flow, transports nutrients and glucose products of photosynthesis around the plant.

Vasucalar bundle

Contains phloem and xylem

Lower epidermis layer

Filled stomata guarded by guard cells where gas exchange occurs.


Controls gas and water exchange, guarded by guard cells

Guard cells

Control opening and closing of the stomata.

When turgid, plenty of water in plant, guard cells are open

When flaccid, not a lot of water in plant, guard cells close stomata


Th evaporation of water at the surface of the spongy mesophyll layer followed by the loss of water vapor through the stomata.

Route of transpiration

Water enters the plant through the route hair cells and passes through the cortex via osmosis. The water then moves up the xylem in a cohesive unit and evaporates at the surface of the spongy mesophyll layer and diffuses into the air pockets. The stomata then opens, allowing the water vapor to diffuse out of the plant, pulling water molecules along with it.


During translocation, sugar is transported as sucrose. Sucrose is moved from the area it is produced and stored (the source) to the area where it is utilized and stored (the sink).

Food Chain

A chart showing the flow of energy from one organism to the next, starting with a producer and ending with a carnivore.

Food web

A network of interconnecting food chains showing the flow of energy through an ecosystem.


An organism that produces its own organic nutrients, usually by using energy from the sun through photosynthesis.


An organism that gets its energy from feeding off of other organisms.


An organism that gets its energy from eating plants


An organism that gets its energy from eating other animals.


An animal that gets its energy from feeding of dead or waste organic matter.

eg. fungi or bacteria


The area in which an organism lives


All the living organism living in the same habitat


All the animals of one specific species living in the same habitat


A group of populations of organisms interacting with each other in the same environment

Carbon Cycle

Carbon is found everywhere, transferred from soil, to atmosphere, to trees, to animals in a continuos cycle. Trees take in carbon dioxide in the air to perform photosynthesis. The carbon is then used to form tree tissues which fall off the trees in autumn, and decompose in the soil leading to carbon pools. It can be found in fossils fuels and animals breath out carbon when they respire.

Tropic levels

Different levels of the food chain

In every level, energy is lost through movement, heat, digestion. Therefore the higher up the food chain we go the smaller that energy because. This is why consumers have to usually eat more than one organism in order to be satisfied.


Can be found as single glucose molecules (monosaccharide) or as a series of glucose molecules called starch, which can be stored.

Carbs provide our body with the energy it needs to function and can be found in bread, pasta, sugary foods etc.


Each protein molecule is made out of twenty amino acids. There are 20 types of amino acids which come in various shape, therefore there can be thousands of different types of protein.

Protein is used to help muscle growth and muscle recovery and is found in meat and milk


Fats/Lipids are made out of 3 fatty acids connected to a glycogen molecule.

They provide the body with a longer lasting and concentrated energy source and also insulate the body in cold weather.

Vitamin C

Helps the body ward off diseases and infections. Can be found in fruits such as apples.

Vitamin D

Help with the absorption of calcium into the bloodstream. Can be found in fish


Helps keep bones strong and healthy. Can be found in Diary products.


Helps with the transport of oxygen around the body.

Found in mollusks


Keeps us hydrated

Found in cucumber and watermelon


Helps Prevent Diabetes, Heart diseases and some cancers

Testing For Glucose

Benedict's Test

Add glucose to Benedict's solution, should turn from blue, to green, to yellowish-orange, to brick-red.

Testing for starch

Iodine test

Add few drops of iodine to starch. Should turn blue/black

Testing for Proteins

Biuret' test

Add sodium hydroxide and 2-3 drops of copper sulphate solution to protein. Blue ring should appear and upon mixing, solution should turn purple.

Testing for Lipids

Emulsion test

Dissolve lipids in test tube of ethanol and oil. Shake vigorously, cloudy suspension should occur.

Deficiency in Vitamin C and D

Vitamin C: Could lead to disease known as scurvy. Symptoms are easy bruising or bleeding, joint and muscle pains, gum diseases and loosening of teeth.

Vitamin D: Could lead to rickets. which leads to bone deformation and stunted growth.

Deficiency in Calcium

Deficiency in calcium can lead to osteoporosis. Symptoms are fragile and weak bones.

Deficiency in Iron

Lead to disease known as Amenia, which decreases red blood count decreasing the absorption and transportation of oxygen.

Deficiency in Protein

Can lead to Kwashiorkor, which can lead to fatigue, diarrhea, loss in muscle mass etc.

Enzymes (biology)

Proteins, also known as biological catalyst, that carry out metabolical processes.

Optimum pH

The pH at which an enzyme works most efficiently at

Optimum temperature

The temperature at which an enzyme works most efficiently at.


Digestion is the breaking down of large insoluble food pieces into small soluble food particles, because large food pieces can not be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Mechanical Digestion

Breaking down of large lumps of foods into smaller pieces of food by physical means

Chemical digestion

Breaking down insoluble large pieces of food into smaller soluble food particles using enzymes.


Taking food into the body.

Mouth and gullet

Absorption (digestion)

The transfer of nutrients and minerals into the bloodstream through diffusion through the intestinal walls. Also the absorption of water in the large intestine.


The soluble products of digestion are taken to cells and used to make structures in the cells.

Also converting products back into their substrates:

Glucose to glycogen

Amino Acids to protein

Fatty acid and glycogen to lipids for storage.


The removal of waste material that could not be digested.


Mouth and Salivary Glands

The mouth helps to chew food into smaller bits with larger surface areas using teeth to make it easier for enzymes to digest. The increased surface area means there is more space for the enzymes to react on. The salivary glands secrete amylase which digest starch and turn it into glucose.


Brings food down into the stomach from the mouth.


The stomach helps digest foods using acids and enzymes.


Secretes different types of enzymes into the small intestines to digest nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

Small intestine

The small intestine absorbs nutrients and minerals from digested food into the bloodstream via the villi and capillaries.

Gall bladder

Stores up Bile


Produces bile which emulsifies fats to make it easier for lipase to digest and neutralizes the acids going from the stomach into the small intestine.

Also removes toxic contents from our blood

Large intstine

Conducts waste towards the rectum and absorbs water.


Excretes waste from the body


Secreted from the salivary glands in the mouth and the pancreas into the small intestine to breaks down starch into glucose


Secreted into the stomach from the stomach walls, breaks down protein into amino acids.


Secreted from the pancreas into the small intestine. Breaks down proteins into amino acids


Secreted from the pancreas into the small intestine, in order to break down lipids into fatty acids and glycogen


Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It's function is to neutralize acids going from the stomach into the small intestine and emulsify lipids so they are easier to digest by lipase.

Alimentary canal

Mouth (salivary glands) ---> Oesophagus ----> Stomach (Pancreas, Gall bladder, Liver) ----> ilium-----> Colon -----> Rectum ----> Anus

Villi, micro villi and lacteal

Villi line the walls of the small intestine and help absorb nutrients from the small intestine into the capillaries. Micro Villi lay on top of the villi and increase surface area to increase rate of absorption.

Lacteal: Absorbs emulsified fats and stores them

Circulatory System

A systems of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure a one way flow

4 main chambers of the heart

Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle

Route of the blood from the lungs to the rest of the body

Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium via the pulmonary vein. Once the atrium is full the heart contracts pushing the blood down into the left ventricle. Bicuspid valves block the blood from going back into the left atrium. The heart then contracts once more pushing the blood out of the heart to the rest of the body via the aorta and enters the heart again via the vena cava. Once again the heart contracts, pushing the blood down into the right ventricle, this time tricuspid valves are put in place to prevent back-flow and after one last contraction the blood, now deoxygenated leaves the heart towards the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

Blood vessels that bring blood from heart to kidney/liver and bac

Heart to Kidney: Hepatic artery

Kidney to Heart: Hepatic Vein

Heart to Liver: Renal artery

Liver to Heart: Renal Vein

Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary Heart Disease occurs when plaque that has been built up in the arteries over many years ruptures, and clots form around it. If the area of the clot is large enough, the whole artery may be blocked stopping the flow of oxygen towards the heart and therefore causing a heart attack


Carry blood away from the heart. The arteries have thick walls and a small lumen. Because of their thick walls they also have thick muscle layers and elastic fibres. The width of the vessel inside is narrow and do not have valves as heart provides pressure needed to push the blood.


Carry blood towards the heart. Thin walls and a large lumen. Because of their thin walls they also have thin muscle layers and elastic fibres. Wide centre tube and valves put in place to prevent back-flow.


Carry blood from body cell to body cell. One cell wall thick and are therefore used for diffusion of oxygen into the lungs and diffusion of nutrients into the small intestine. They have no muscle or elastic fibres and have a very narrow centre tube. No valves.

White blood cells

Larger than red bloods cells and contain a nucleus. The white blood cells aid the body to fight off infections and bacteria.


Lobed nucleus to allow it to change shape easily. Crawls around and engulfs bacteria


Produces special proteins called antibodies which are used to attack and destroy bacteria. Each antibody is created for a specific type of bacteria.


Tiny fragments of cell that help clot blood at the site of a wound. They also release chemicals to prevent permanent clots.


Liquid part of the blood, solution of materials that are being transported, such as glucose, amino acids, carbon dioxide, urea, minerals etc.


The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.

Aerobic respiration

The release of energy in cells by the breaking down of food substances in the presence of oxygen.

Word equation for aerobic respiration

Oxygen + Glucose ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water

Uses of energy in the body

Protein synthesis


Passage of nerve impulses

Cell Division

Muscle contractions

Maintanance of constant body temperature

Anaerobic Respiration

The release of energy by the breaking down of food substances in the absence of oxygen

Word equation for anaerobic respiration

Glucose ------> Lactic acid

Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is a harmful substance that is produced during anaerobic respiration. It can cause cramps and muscle pains.

Oxygen Debt

In order to get rid of lactic acid, the lactic acid is transported to the liver where it is combined with oxygen. However, this forces the body to take in more oxygen, which it can't at the moment, therefor putting you in an oxygen debt. This is why even after running we continue breathing heavily.

Why does dough rise when baking?

This is because when anaerobic respiration occurs in the process of baking, carbon dioxide is formed. The carbon dioxide rises and bubbles through the dough making it rise as well.

Word Equation for Respiration in yeast

Glucose ----> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide (+ a little bit of energy)


Just on top of the trachea, the pharnyx prevents water and food from going down the trachea and directs it down the oesophagus. It also directs air into the lungs.


Directs/Leads air into the lungs


Main passageway in the lungs, directs air towards Bronchioles


Smaller tubes of air which conduct air towards the alveoli


Tiny air sacs at the end of bronchioles were gas exchange occurs

Cartilage in the lungs

Found in the Trachea and the bronchus to maintain structure

Why are the lungs red?

Because of the capillaries carry blood inside it

Why are the lungs spongy?

Because of the millions of alveoli, which are tiny air sacs

Adaptions of the lungs

1.) Provide large surface area for gas exchange

2.) The walls of the alveoli and capillaries are only one cell wall thick meaning gas exchange is rapid

3.) Moist, to dissolve oxygen before it enters the blood

4.) Good transport system

Problems with smoking

Nicotine is a highly addictive drug that increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Tar collects in the lungs damaging alveoli and therefore reducing the rate of gas diffusion

When dirt and pathogens collect in the lungs, mucus is created to trap them.

Problems with smoking pt 2

The ciliated cells push the mucus back up the lungs so we can spit it out. However Smoking damages the ciliated cells keeping the pathogens and dirt trapped in the lungs

Carbon Monoxide reduces red blood cells ability to carry oxygen.