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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

define Homeostasis

the maintenance of a relatively constant internal physiological environment of the body or part of the body under varying external conditions

What is the Stimulus response model?

stimulus -> change -> receptor -> control centre -> effector -> response

What is a receptor?

Receptors identify changes inside and outside your body.

What is the control centre?

Once a stimulus has been detected by a receptor, a message in the form of a nerve impulse travels to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

What is the effector in the stimulus response model

Effectors such as muscles or glands receive the message from the central nervous system to respond in a particular way

define positive feedback and give an example

positive feedback response adds to the stimulus (increase in oxytocin during child birth)

define negative feedback and give an example

Negative feedback occur when the response is in an opposite direction to the stimulus.

(body temp goes above normal, hypothalamus detects and sends signals to sweat glands)

Define Endocrine Glands

ductless glands that secretes hormones directly into blood

Define Hormones

chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

Name two hormones and the gland that produces them + function

1.thyroxine produced in the thyroid gland, increases metabolic rate

2.Adrenaline produced in the adrenal medulla, works to supply more blood to muscles for flight or fight

How does the body regulate blood sugar levels?

if an increase in blood sugar levels is detected by receptors, the pancreas responds by producing insulin, this triggers an uptake of glucose by the liver and muscle cells and the conversion of glucose into glycogen for storage

what are the 4 types of receptors?

mechano, photo, chemo, thermo

what is the difference between the nervous system and the peripheral nervous system?

the nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system are the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.

what is the nervous system?

the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse.

what is the endocrine system?

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

label this diagram

label this diagram

plus insular lobe midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata 

plus insular lobe midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata

structure of a neuron

workinprogress will do once i figure out what diagram we need to learn

define Synapse

the gap between neurons

define neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

define Reflex Arc

a nervous pathway involving a small number of neurons. A reflex occurs when nervous impulses travel from the receptor to the spinal cord and then to the effector organ.

label this diagram of a reflex arc

label this diagram of a reflex arc

Stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron in spinal cord, motor neuron, effector, response

Stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron in spinal cord, motor neuron, effector, response

what is the function of the frontal lobe?

thinking processes - i.e (conscious thoughts, problem solving and decision making)

what is the function of the occipital lobe?

the occipital lobe is charged with interpreting signals from the eyes to turn them into images.

what is the function of the temporal lobe?

hearing, memory and speech

what is the function of the insular lobe?

scientists do not yet know what the insular lobe does.

what is the function of the parietal lobe?

the senses, taste, touch and temperature

what is the function of the corpus callosum?

the corpus callosum is the bridge between the two hemispheres, made up of 100 million nerve fibres

what is the function of the cerebellum?

responsible for balance, coordinates movement and has a role in memory, learning and language.

what is the cerebrum?

the cerebrum makes up about 90% of the brain and contains the lobes

what is the function of the midbrain?

information highway of the brain connects the two regions, in between the front and back brains

what is the function of the pons?

involved in regulating sleep, arousal and breathing, and coordinating some muscle movements

what is the function of the medulla oblongata?

The medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing.

which hemisphere of the brain could be considered the creative side?

right hemisphere

define disease

any change that impairs the function of an individual in some way and causes harm to the individual

two types of disease?

infectious and non-infectious

what are the 5 ways infectious diseases can spread? + example of a disease

direct contact (influenza), vectors(malaria), contaminated objects(fungal infection on floor), contaminated water(cholera), air droplets(influenza)

what are the 6 types of pathogens?

bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoans, fungi, macroparasites(arthropods and worms)

define parasite

organism that lives in or on another organism. The parasite benefits while usually harming the host organism.

name a disease that each of the pathogens can spread

bacteria(cholera), virus(influenza), prions(mad cow disease), protozoans(malaria), fungi(athletes foot), macroparasites(pinworm)

what is a prion?

non-cellular pathogen prion = protein + infection

the disease converts your normal protein into prion protein

responsible for degenerating neurlogical diseases.

what is disease causing bacteria?

cellular pathogens consisting of one cell

classified by shape

spherical, rod shaped, spiral shaped

what is a virus?

non cellular pathogen

consist of DNA or RNA enclosed with protein coats

not considered living

what is a parasitic protozoan?

single celled organisms, common in tropical diseases,

what is a fungi?

parasite, feeds on host,

what is a macro parasite?(worm/arthropod)

larger than fungi, have hooks and suckers, live of host(normally human)

name how many lines of defence there are and whether they are non specific or specific

3, the first two are non specific the last is specific.

what does the first line of defence consist of and what is its purpose?

the first line of defence is designed to prevent the entry of invading pathogens

barriers(skin, coughing, cillia and also chemicals in tears, stomach acid and acidic vaginal mucus.

what does the second line of defence consist of and what is it's purpose?

if pathogens get through the first line of defence then the second comes into play

- consists of inflammation and phagocytes which engulf and destroy foreign particles

what does the third line of defence consist of and what is it's purpose?

the purpose of the third line is to specifically target pathogens and destroy them

the lymphatic system is involved in this

- b lymphocytes will divide into plasma cells and then produce antibodies specific infection

-T cell lymphocytes attack on a cellular level, they destroy foreign cells and the infected bodies cells

both of these have memory cells meaning they can will remember disease and defeat it easier next time it occurs

what is the difference between vaccination and immunity?

vaccination is the giving of pathogens to a healthy person in the hope of them devleoping immunity to it

what is the difference between active and passive immunity?

active immunity is the process where the body makes antibodies to a specific antigen

passive immunity is where you receive antibodies from an outside source

define the big bang theory

the theory that the universe was created by a singularity formed by concentrated energy exploded over years creating matter and galaxies and stars.

what is a galaxy

a galaxy is a group of stars

what is a nebulae?

clusters of galaxies and clouds of dust and dust

how is a protostar formed?

when the density of gas and dust floating through space reaches 100 atoms per cubic centimetre, at this point gravity takes hold and the mass collapses on itself forming a nebulae.

as the mass collapses further it forms globules, the increasing pressure forms a protostar.

list these

list these

nebulae, small star, red giant, planetary nebulae, white dwarf, black dwarf

nebulae large star, red supergiant, supernova, neutron star/ black hole

what effects what path a star will go down?

the amount of dust and gas in the nebulae when the protostar forms effects the initial size

what is red shift?

red shift is when a star moves away from the Earth it is a shift to lower or redder frequencies

what is blue shift?

blue shift is when a star moves towards the Earth, it is a shift to higher or blue frequencies

according to comsologists when was the universe created

15 billion years ago

what is the steady state theory

the steady state theory is a theory about the creation of the universe that states that the universe was always there, the galaxies are continuously moving away from each other and where there is empty space new stars are made to keep the universe the same

name three 3 theories about how the universe may end

1.big crunch, where the universe snaps back on itself creating a singularity

2. big chill when all stars use up their fuel and the universe cools down considerably, these pieces would scatter

3.big rip the universe tears itself apart as a result of the increasing expansion rate

what is the biosphere?

the biosphere is the life support system of the planet

it consists of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biota(living things)

what is the atmosphere?

The Earth’s atmosphere is divided into thetroposphere (lower atmosphere) and the stratosphere

what is the hydrosphere?

The waters of our planet make up the hydrosphere.

what is the lithosphere?

Earth’s rocky crust and soil make up the lithosphere.It is within this sphere that igneous, sedimentary andmetamorphic rocks are formed, broken down andchanged from one type to another

What is the carbon cycle?

the carbon cycle is a cycle showing the processes by which carbon moves through the biosphere

what is the nitrogen cycle?

The nitrogen cycle models how nitrogen movesthrough the biosphere

what is the phosphorus cycle?

The phosphorus cycle models how phosphorusmoves from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere andthen through food chains and back.

what is the natural greenhouse effect?

heat from the earth is radiated outward and absorbed by "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere. This process prevents heat from disappearing into space and keeps Earth warm enough to sustain life.

Why is the greenhouse effect a problem for the world?

when people burn fossil fuels especially we release Co2 into the atmosphere this, adds to the greenhouse effect causing the planet to heat up more than normal.

what is climate change?

an increase in the average temperature of the Earth' atmosphere, especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climate change

what is ozone?

a poisonous gas that is formed naturally in the ozone layer normal oxygen but also from exposure to UV light or electrical discharge

what is the nucleus of an atom?

it is the center, made up of protons and neutrons

what is a proton?

positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom

what is a neutron?

neutrally charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom

what is an electron?

negatively charged particle, very small, orbits the nucleus

what are the three types of nuclear radiation?

alpha particles, beta particles and gamma particles

what are the three types of acid reaction's and what do they produce?

acid + base = salt and water

acid + metal = salt +H2

acid + carbonate = salt + Co2 + water

if a substance has a pH of 3 is it acidic or basic?

it is acidic

write the name for CO

carbon monoxide

what is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond?

an ionic bond is the bond between a metal and a non metal, a covalent is between two non metals. for covalent bonds you use prefixes.

name the prefixes for chemicals up to 8

mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta and octa

state the name for N2O3

and whether it is covalent or ionic

dinitrogen trioxide


state the formula for calcium hydroxide


what does an elements atomic number represent?

number of protons

what is equivalent to # of protons + # of neutrons?

mass number

what is an ion?

a charged particle

the charge of an ion is equal to

# of electrons gained of lost

what do radioactive particles emit?

particles and energy

what does the pH scale range from?


on the pH scale what does water show?

water is neutral with a pH of 7

what are the two types of circuits?

series, parallel

in a series circuit that has a battery, 6 globes and a switch, what would happen if one of the globes was to blow out while the switch was closed?

all of the globes would stop working because there is no path for the current
state the function of the pineal gland

produces melatonin which induces sleep and also's wakes someone up

what type of pathogen of would be effected by antibiotic drugs?


what is an attenuated pathogen?

an attenuated pathogen is a weaker version of a pathogen, attenuated pathogens are used in vaccines

what is an endothermic chemical reaction

a reaction where heat from the surrounding area is absorbed e.g ammonium nitrate in quick ice pack's

what is an exothermic chemical reaction

a reaction where heat is released. e.g combustion (burning)

what is the law of conversation of mass?

the law of conservation of mass is a law that states that energy can neither be created or destroyed.

when a metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, the products are:

salt + H2

which of the following does not contribute to acid rain?


Nitrogen Oxide's

Active Volcano's


Active Volcano's

Which is heavier:

Alpha particle

Beta particle




Name the following covalent compounds:





Nitrogen dioxide

carbon monoxide

carbon tetrachloride

sulphur trioxide

balance the following equation

Al + HCl -> H2 + AlCl3

2Al + 6HCl -> 3H2 + 2AlCl3

what evidence supports the big bang theory?

cosmic background microwave radiation

Acid Example + Features

HCl Acid, corrosive acidic taste sour

Base Example + Features

Sodium Hydroxide, bitter taste, soapy or slippery feeling

what is this?

what is this?


what is this?

what is this?


what is this?

what is this?


what is this

what is this


how do you calculate resistance in a series circuit?

R1 + R2 + R3 +....... = Rtotal

how do you calculate resistance in a parallel circuit?

1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 = Rtotal

what are the two types of waves?

transverse and longitudinal (compression)

what is a compression and what is a rarefaction?

a compression is the region of air where the particles are closer together, a rarefaction is when the particles are further apart. both are caused by soundwaves

what is the frequency of a wave and what is it measured in?

number of vibrations in one second, or the number of wavelengths passing in one second. Hertz, (Hz)

what is the amplitude of a wave?

the amplitude is the distance from the middle of the wave to either of the crests (up or down)

what sort of wave is sound moved by?

compression wave

what is the ossicles?

the ossicles are 3 small bones located in the middle ear, they pass vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear

what is the eardrum?

a flap of membrane which vibrated according to vibrations from the world

what is the cochlea?

the snail-shaped part of the inner ear. It is lined with tiny hairs that are vibrated by sound and stimulate the hearing receptors.

what is a luminous object?

objects that emit light

what is a transparent object?

object that lets enough light through for objects on the other side to be clear

what is a translucent object?

allows light through imperfectly so you can see stuff on the other side


cant see through

what is the cornea?

the cornea is the curved surface on the outside of the eye (coloured part of the eye)

what is the retina?

the screen in the back of the eye that is sensitive to light and sends signals to the brain

what is the pupil?

a ring of muscles that light enters through

what is a converging lens?

a lens which converges light towards one spot

what is a diverging lens?

a lens which diverts light

on the periodic table how are the elements ordered?

by atomic number

what are some of the groups on the periodic table and where are they located? (do 3)

Noble gases (far right), halogens (far right left one), alkali metals (far left row excluding hydrogen)