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43 Cards in this Set

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solar system

composed of a sun (star), planets, and other bodies that travel (orbit) around that star

solar nebula

interstellar clouds of gas and dust

gravity

the force that attracts a body to the center of the earth

planetesimal

colliding particles can stick together

rotation

spinning on its axis

revolution

orbit around the sun

planet

revolve around the sun

fusion

putting two things together to form one thing

orbit

path around the sun

kepler

-1571-1630


-Kepler's law of planetary motion

ellipse

a closed, curved shape that isn't a circle

major axis

maximum length

semi major axis

half length

astronomical unit

average distance from earth to sun

helium 3

light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron

hydrogen

a color less, odor less, highly flammable gas

sun

the star which the earth orbits around



photosphere

visible surface, 600 km thick -6,000 celcius

Ptolemy

-earth was the center of the universe with everything revolving around it


-90 to 168



Copernicus

-1473


-provided first heliocentric theory of the solar system

Galileo galilei

-1564 to 1643


-father of modern astronomy


-proved that earth was not the center of the universe

heliocentric

the theory that the sun is the center of the universe

satellite

a celestial body orbiting the earth or another planet

moon

body that revolves around a planet

waxing

growing

waning

shrinking

eclipse

occurs when the shadow of one celestial body falls on another

comet

small bodies of ice, rock, and comic dust

meteor

-smaller than asteroids


-called meteorites when they hit the earth



asteriod

small rocky bodies hat orbit the sun

what is the difference between a solar and a lunar eclipse

a solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, blocking all or a portion of the sun.


a lunar eclipse is when all or a portion of the moon is hidden

what is the composition of a solar nebula

Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Carbon (C), and Iron (Fe)

how was the earth formed

The Earth is thought to have been formed about 4.6 billion years ago by collisions in the giant disc-shaped cloud of material that also formed the Sun. Gravity slowly gathered this gas and dust together into clumps that became asteroids and small early planets called planetesimals.

what are the phases of the moon

-new moon


-waxing crescent


-first quarter


-waxing gibbous


-full moon


-waning


-last quarter


-waning crescent

what causes the phases of the moon

As the moon revolves around the earth the illuminated portion of the moon appears to change. The different phases of the moon change over a period of about 30 days

how do the solar system models of Ptolemy and Copernicus differ

Ptolemy said the Earth was the center of the universe


Copernicus said the sun was the center

what are the differences between comets, asteriods, and meteorites

Comets- small bodies of ice, rock, and comic dust


asteroids- small rocky bodies that orbit the sun


meteorites- when a meteor strikes the earth

deuterium

an isotope of hydrogen that has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus and that has twice the mass of ordinary hydrogen—called also heavy hydrogen.

mantle

- a rocky layer located under the crust


-Layer of the Earth

atmosphere

the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.

ion tail

The long, narrow tail of a comet

how and why are terrestrial planets and gas planets differ

-terrestrial planets have a surface, unlike gas giants.


- Gas giants are made of gas and don't actually have a solid surface.


-terrestrial planets don't have as many moons as gas planets

why do we always see the same side of the moon

The moon does one rotation for each revolution around Earth