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21 Cards in this Set

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Probiotics

Probiotics contain good bacteria. They regulate vitamin uptake break down food and convert sugars into nutrients. Probiotics also help or immune system by fighting infection. Food like natural yoghurt contain probiotics

Prebiotics

Prebiotics are the food which bacteria need to grow. These foods are non digestible. Food like raw and cooked onions and asparagus contain prebiotic's.

Active transport

Active transport is the movement of sugar molecules from a low concentration to a high concentration. The molecules go against the concentration gradient which means they need a lot of energy to go through the membrane. Small openings need lots of energy to get through and also need specific proteins to open them. The movement of the particles are random

Enzymes in digestion

Enzymes break down large insoluble molecules of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into smaller pieces which the body can absorb.



Carbohydrases



example of enzyme: Amylase



food it acts upon: starch



location: mouth and small intestine



substance produced: glucose (simple sugars)




Proteases



example of enzyme: Pepsin



food it acts upon: proteins



location: stomach



substance produced: amino acid's



Lipases



Example: lipase


Food it acts upon: Fats and oils


Location: small intestin


substance: fatty acid and glycerol

Who first founded DNA and when ?

In 1869 Friedrich Meischer found DNA

Who first founded DNA and when ?

In 1869 Friedrich Meischer found DNA

Who took the first X ray of DNA and when?

In 1937 William Astbury produced the first x-ray of DNA

Who identified DNA as the genetic material of cells and when?

In 1944 and Oswald Avery

Who identified DNA as the genetic material of cells and when?

In 1944 and Oswald Avery

Who matches the base pairs and when?

In 1951 and Erwin Chargaff

Who identified DNA as the genetic material of cells and when?

In 1944 and Oswald Avery

Who matches the base pairs and when?

In 1951 and Erwin Chargaff

Who did the crystallography, when did it happen and what happened?

In 1952, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins use crystallography to discover the arrangement of the atoms of DNA molecules

Who and when was the double helix structure founded?

In 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick said that DNA had a Double helix structure

What is an enzyme?

Enzymes are biological catalysts. They increase the rate of chemical reaction is inside and outside of cells.

What is an enzyme?

Enzymes are biological catalysts. They increase the rate of chemical reaction is inside and outside of cells.

What effects enzymes?

Because most enzymes are protein,s they are very sensitive to change in temperature and pH. The activity of an enzyme increases as the temperature goes up but if the enzyme reaches is the maximum (which is normally 37°C in the human body) the enzyme activity will decrease.

What is an enzyme?

Enzymes are biological catalysts. They increase the rate of chemical reaction is inside and outside of cells.

What effects enzymes?

Because most enzymes are protein,s they are very sensitive to change in temperature and ph. The activity of an enzyme increases as the temperature goes up but if the enzyme reaches is the maximum (which is normally 37°C in the human body) the enzyme activity will decrease.

Denaturing

Denaturing is a permanent change in the shape of a protein molecule. Its caused by breaking up of hydrogen bonds that hold the structure together. A change in a protein shape will affect it's activity because the active site will change, so the substrate will no longer fit. At extremes of temperature or pH and the enzyme will become denatured.

Proteinsynthesis

Transcription



1. The strands of DNA separate



2. mRNA joins the single strand of DNA and matches its base pairs replaced T with U



3. They exit the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm



Translation



4. It binds to the ribosome making a mRNA-ribosome complex



5. A tRNA binds to an amino acid



6. Then that tRNA-amino acid complex joins to the mRNA-ribosome complex



7. Then the tRNA seperates from its amino acida and mRNA strand.



8. The amino acids join together to make polypeptides and then as the get longer they make proteins