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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a cell?
A cell is the building block of life.
(What are the functions of the following organelles?)
(What are the functions of the following organelles?)
A jelly-like substance that contains the organelles and other life-supporting materials.
(What are the functions of the following organelles?)
The control center of the cell, directs all cell activity.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Acts as a transport system for materials made in the cell, usually ribosomes.
Manufactures proteins.
Provide energy by changing glucose into usable energy
Traps energy from the Sun and makes glucose
Cell wall
Provides support and prevents cell from bursting
membrane-covered storage containers
Golgi body
sorts and packages proteins for transport
contains digestive enzymes to break down substances and worn-out organelles
Cell membrane
separates the inside of a cell from its external environment
Nuclear pore
only lets certain materials in and out of the nucleus
Nuclear membrane
protects contents of nucleus
(What are the functions of the following organelles? -END-)
makes ribosomes
What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
Plant cells have vacuoles, cell wall, and chloroplasts, while animal cells don't.
What is the control center of the cell called? What does it contain?
The nucleus directs all cell activity and contains DNA.
In DNA, what are the 4 nitrogen bases?
Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine.
In DNA, what are the complimentary base pairs?
A/T, G/C
DNA fits into our cells by coiling up and wrapping itself up in protein. When it is in this state, what is it called?
When chromatin coils up even further, into an X-shape, it becomes a:
What are genes?
Genes are small segments (made up of hundreds to thousands of bases) of DNA molecules located at specific places along its length.
What do genes code for?
The instructions for specific proteins.
The Production of a Protein:
~Nucleus receives chemical signal to make a specific protein.
~The DNA message for the protein is copied into a small molecule called ribonucleic acid or RNA.
~RNA exits the nucleus through nuclear pores, and attaches to a ribosome.
~The ribosomes make the protein, and then the protein enters the endoplasmic reticulum for finishing touches.
~The Golgi body then sorts, packages, and sends the protein, usually on a vesicle, to where it's needed.
What is a gene mutation?
A gene mutation results when the specific sequence of A/T & G/C bases that make up a particular gene changes.
The 3 different types of mutations are
substitution, addition, and deletion.
What is a positive mutation? (and example)
Increase chance of survival.
Ex; scientists have discovered a mutation that makes individuals resistant to HIV
What is a negative mutation? (and example)
Decreases chance of survival.
Ex; cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia
What is a neutral mutation? (and example)
No effect - neither increases nor decreases chance of survival.
Most common.
Ex; white coat color of spirit bear
What is a mutagen? (and example)
A substance or factor that can cause mutations in DNA.
Ex; radiation, viruses, pollution, smoking
Mutations that can cause cancer are called:
What is gene therapy?
Treating conditions caused by gene mutations.
Why do cells divide?
For growth and repair.
What are the 3 stages in the cell cycle?
Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis.
What occurs during the cell cycle stages:
Longest stage in cell cycle.
During this phase, DNA is in the form of chromatin.
Divided into 3 stages.
What occurs during the cell cycle stages:
Three stages of Interphase:
1) Growth & Preparation - cell grows in size & doubles its organelles while performing its usual functions
2) DNA Replication - DNA duplicates, making an exact copy of itself
3) Continued Growth & Preparation - after DNA replication, cell continues growing and preparing while still performing usual functions. it synthesizes a lot of proteins needed for cell division.
What occurs during the cell stages:
Shortest stage in cell cycle.
Contents of nucleus divide, making two daughter nuclei original to the parent cell.
Spindle fibers move around the chromosomes.
Centrioles control the spindle fibers, not found in plant cells.
What occurs during the cell stages:
what are the Four stages of Mitosis:
Prophase - further subdivided into early prophase and late prophase
Metaphase -
Anaphase -
Telophase -
What occurs during the cell stages:
describe four stages of Mitosis:
P - spindle fibers form and attach to centromeres, nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear
M - chromosomes pulled onto metaphase plate (in the center)
A - spindle fibers contract, chromosomes split
T - nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear, two nuclei in one cell
T -
What occurs during the cell stages
splits into two daughter cells
animal: cell membrane pinches together
plant: cell plate forms
Explain the steps in DNA replication (interphase)
Enzyme unzips DNA and separates base pairs.
new bases pair with original bases.
two new identical dna molecules are made.
Describe checkpoints in the cell cycle.
"Self-checks" to see if everything is going normally.
Cell won't divide if:
Not enough nutrients to support growth.
The DNA has not been replicated.
The DNA is damaged.
If a mutation occurs in a checkpoint protein:
all cell cycle control will be lost.
Damaged cells can divide ______________.
Uncontrolled cell division is called _____________.
without control
Describe cancer cells.
Cancer cells are abnormal and do not function appropriately in the organ they reside. They grow in multiple layers, forming tumours.
Cancer can reach the _________________ and then _________
circulatory system and travel through blood vessels, making new tumours
How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction?
Offspring of asexual reproduction : a clone.
What is a clone?
A clone is an identical genetic copy of an organism's parent
What are the 5 types of asexual reproduction?
Binary fission
Vegetative reproduction
Spore formation
Describe: Binary fission
and example
a single parent cell replicates its genetic material and divides into two equal parts
Describe: Budding
and example
An outgrowth of an individual that develops into a new individual.
hydra, sponge, yeast
Describe: Fragmentation
and example
Parts that break off due to injury and develop into new individuals.
sea star
Describe vegetative reproduction
and example
Plants use special cells that form structures that develop into an identical plant
strawberry plants
describe spore formation
and example
spore are produced by fungi, and develop into new organisms by mitosis
fungi??? lol wtf
Asexual Reproduction
-large numbers of offspring quickly
-large colonies can out-compete other organisms and increase chance of species survival
-no energy to find a mate
Asexual Reproduction
-offspring are clones
-negative mutation can destroy large numbers of offspring
-large colonies that are close together may compete for food
-colonies could be wiped out with bad conditions
(human assisted cloning)
What is Reproductive Cloning?
Making offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. Purpose is usually to make a duplicate of an existing organism with desirable characteristics.
(human assisted cloning)
What is Therapeutic Cloning?
Cloning to correct health problems. Cells called stem cells are used for therapeutic cloning.
What are stem cells?
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to become many different types of cells. Stem cells can be used to replace damaged cells because they an be grown into different tissues.
How many parents are involved in sexual reproduction?
What are the offspring of sexual reproduction like?
They have genetic diversity and variation.
What is genetic diversity?
Inherited genetic differences in a species that give many organisms a survival advantage.
In humans, how many chromosomes are in a typical body cell:
what is this called:
haploid number
Humans inherit _________ from mom and _________ from dad
what is this called:
diploid number
diploid number:
all body cells except gametes
haploid number:
only gamete cells
gametes for males and females:
and egg
the process in which an egg cell is penetrated by a sperm cell, and the genetic info combines
What does fertilization make?
A zygote - a fertilized egg with two sets of chromosomes. it will, through mitosis, develop into an embryo
produces gametes.
1 round of DNA replication, 2 rounds of cell division
(meiosis) first cell division:
meiosis 1
(meiosis) second cell division:
meiosis 2
Meiosis is just to produce
Describe meiosis 1
pairs of homologous chromosomes (looks like 4 x's) line up at center and get separated.
produces 2 daughter cells that are diploid.

Describe meiosis 2
Sister chromatids are separated (like mitosis)
produces two more cells which aare HAPLOID
What are homologous chromosomes?
A pair of chromosomes in which 1 was inherited from mom and the other dad.
contain genes for the same traits at the same locations, although they have different variations.
What is crossing over?
Pairs of non-sister chromatids exchange segments of DNA.
What is independent assortment?
The homologous chromosomes line up randomly at the equator - mixing them all up.
Gamete formation in males:
occurs in testes and produces 4 sperm cells
occurs in the ovaries and produce 4 cells, but only one cell gets the most and the other 3 disintegrate
What are the types of chromosome mutations?
What are the 3 stages of sexual reproduction?
mating = gametes arrive at the same time
fertilization = union of sperm and egg cells
development = growing and specializing into the organism
What are the two types of fertilization?
External Fertilization - sperm and egg unite outside the bodies of the parents
common in animals that live in water
ex; sea urchins/ salmon
What are the two types of fertilization?
Internal Fertilization - unite inside body of parent
common in land-dwelling animals (horses/humans)
-embryo develops and is nourished inside the mother's body
External Fertilization.
-chances to have more than one offspring are higher
-genetic variation
-little energy to find a mater
Internal Fertilization
-protected while developing
-higher chance of survival
External Fertilization
-eggs being eaten
- die because not raised by parent,
-no guarantee
Internal Fertilization
-not as many offspring
-more energy to find a mate
What is pollination?
Pollination is the transfer of male gametes (pollen) from the male reproductive part of the plant (anther), to a female reproductive part of the plant (stigma).
Why is pollination important?
It is how flowers reproduce and grow.
Describe embryonic development.
A zygote undergoes mitosis.
After one week -> morula
(so one more week ) After two weeks -> blastula
then -> gastrula
What happens in the gastrula stage?
The cells organize into 3 main layers.
(inside -> out)
What do the three main layers during gastrula become?
Endo -> lungs, liver, and lining of digestive tract
Meso -> muscles, reproductive organs, kidneys, blood vessels and bone (MR. KBB)
Ecto -> skin and nervous system
What is infertility?
Infertility is the inability of a couple to have a baby.
What are the causes for infertility?
Too few/inactive sperm
Hormonal issues
Physical issues (tied fallopian tubes)
Disease or medication (radiation killed sperm)
Assisted reproductive technologies.
Describe: Artificial insemination
Sperm retrieved and place in.
Less chemicals.
No guarantee.
Assisted reproductive technologies.
Describe: In vitro fertilization
Specifically treats fertility problems.
Uses petri dishes.
"test-tube babies"
Fixes different types of problems.
33% success rate
Assisted reproductive technologies.
Describe: Gamete intrafallopian transfer
Allows natural fertilization in the fallopian tubes.
Can fail.
Need at least one normal, open fallopian tube.
Assisted reproductive technologies.
Describe: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Specialized type of INF.
Inject sperm into egg - external fertilization.
Only healthy embryos transferred.
No birth defects.