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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define continental shelf.
>covers about 5% of Earth's surface
>extends in a gently downward slope from the edges of the continents into the oceans
>can extend hundreds of miles out into the ocean
>wide near the mouths of rivers and off coasts
Define continental edge.
>the point at which the shelf surrounding each continent begins to angle sharply downward toward the ocean depths
Define continental slope.
>cliff like drop beyond the continental edge
>true boundary between the deep ocean floor and the continents
Define continental rise.
>stretches from the lower portion of the continental slope to the deepest part of the ocean
Define abyssal plain.
>the broad, flat ocean bottom.
>covers nearly half of Earth's surface
Define Mid-Ocean Ridge.
>chain of mountains under the ocean
>longest mountain range in the world
>passes through the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans
Define seamounts.
>underwater mountain that formed from a volcano
>example: Mauna Kea: a volcano forming the island of Hawaii
Define a sediment.
>small particles that have drifted and settled on the ocean bottom
What is ooze?
>layer of sediments on the ocean floor, forming soft deposits of mud, slime, and decomposed shells

>covers every part of the ocean floor
Identify inorganic sediments that are on the bottom of the ocean floor.
>particle of soil and rock

>deposits from the volcanoes on the ocean floor

>remains of living things that are picked up by glaciers

>burning of meteors and comets in the atmosphere(iron, nickel)
What are some of the organic sediments(ooze) found on the ocean floor?
>most formed from shells of protists(mostly single-celled algae)
>shells of tiny snails and other small marine animals
Identify some chemical and mineral deposits found in the ocean floor.
> gold
> manganese nodules
>there are vast quantities of chemicals in the ocean floor
Define turbidity current.
>a current of water carrying large amounts of sediment.

>these currents may cause sediment to build up in some places

>occur near the mouths of rivers where heavy sedimentary deposits have built up.
How do scientists learn about the ocean?
Scientists study the layers of sediments that are in the ocean.
How are the sedimentary layers of the ocean and a time line similar?
>A timeline shows how events have happened usually from the past to the present.

>the sedimentary layers of the ocean show the past to the present.
What does Sonar stand for and how is sonar used in the study of the ocean?
Sonar stands for sound navigation ranging.

>sonar is used to map the ocean floor.

>ships and boats use sonar to tell the depth of the ocean

>porpoises use sonar to navigate and track prey
What country first began exploring the ocean floor? What was the name of the ship?

What was discovered?
country: Great Britan

name: HMS Challenger

Discovery: ocean teemed with life, the ocean was deep, conclusion: barely begun to explore the oceans.
What is a sumersible?
>any self-propelled underwater craft.

>shaped like submarines but smaller

>carry researches but usually carry robots and equipment
What is a bathysphere?
>older type of submersible
>used by Charles William Beebe to desend to 923 M in 1934
>heavily reinforced, spherical capsule attached to a cable that lowers into the ocean and then brings it back up to the surface.
What is a bathyscaphs?
>replaced bathyspheres


>dives and surfaces like a submarine
Who was the first person to build a structure that people could live survive in when in the ocean?
Jacques Cousteau