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189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Narrative Observation
occur when the observer describes what they see in a classroom by taking detailed notes
Semi-structured Observation
observer is attempting to identify specific behaviors; typically track the frequency of a behavior
Highly Structured Observations
checklists that require the observer to indicate if a behavior or element is manifesting during observation.
Bergan and Kratchowill consultation model
1. Establish objectives
2. Establish measures for performance objectives
3. Establish and implement data-collection procedures.
4. Display the data
5. Define the problem by establishing the discrepancy between current performance and
the desired performance.
Four Pillars of Assessment
Norm Referenced Measures- Standardized. Assess intelligence, math, reading, writing, behavior, etc.
Interviews- Child and their parents, teachers, etc.
Behavioral Observations- natural surrounding or during formal assessment.
Informal Assessment Procedures- criterion-referenced tests, role playing, written language samples and informal reading assessments.

Measures of Intellectual Functioning

Cognitive assessment system (CAS) 5-17-11

Differential ability scale (DAS) 2:6-17:11

WASI 16-89

wNV 4-21:11

Processing Measures (Memory, Phonemic Awareness)
Measures of Social Skills, Development and Adaptive Behavior
Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II)
Social Skills Rating Systems (SSRS)
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II (Vineland II)
Dodge’s Social Exchange Theory
cognitive steps thought necessary to children's appropriate and competent action in
social situations, namely: (1) encoding social cues, (2) interpreting behavior, (3) generating alternative responses, (4) choosing a response after evaluating potential consequences of alternatives, and (5) performing the chosen response.
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
is a process which uses a variety of techniques to identify the causes of what prompts a child to initiate a particular behavior. function or purpose of a student's behavior.
Behavioral intervention plans (BIP)
find out why a student initiates problem behavior are very effective when addressing problem behaviors. identifying whether student's motivation to act out is to escape, avoid, or obtain desired items or activities.
Performance based assessments (PBA)
ask students to show what they can do given an authentic task which is then judged using a specific set of criteria. how a student understands and applies their knowledge.
Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)
measurement that uses' direct observation and recording of a student's performance in the local curriculum as a basis for gathering information to make instructional decisions.
ecological assessment
observe how a child performs an activity in a given environment, typically the classroom.
Standard score
a raw score that has been converted from one scale to another scale that is more widely used and easier to interpret.
Percentile rank
percentage or proportion of scores that score lower than a given score.
Normal curve equivalent
a score received on a test based on the percentile rank. It simply measures where a student falls on a normal curve.
scaling test scores on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of five (5) and a standard deviation of two (2).
Deviation IQ
standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
expressed exclusively in standard deviation units. A score that is one standard deviation above the mean has a Z~score of 1, while a score that is one standard deviation below the mean has a Z~score of ~1. A score that is at the mean would have a Z~score of 0.
Grade-equivalent score
describe the specific grade level of students who achieve the given raw score on average.
describes how far the scores are distributed from the mean.
Standard Deviation
demonstrates the variance of a set of scores from the mean Simply put, it is a measure of how spread out the data is.
Specific Mental Retardation Classifications (IQ)
Mild Mental Retardation - Ranging from 50~55 - 70
Moderate Mental Retardation - Ranging from 35~40 - 50~55
Severe Mental Retardation - Ranging from 20~25 - 35~40
Profound Mental Retardation - below 20~25
relative proficiency index
index of the student's predicted quality of performance on tasks similar to the ones tested.
IDEA Disability Categories
1. Autism
2. Deaf-blindness
3. Deafness
4. Emotional Disturbance
5. Hearing impairment
6. Mental Retardation
7. Multiple Disabilities
8. Orthopedic impairment
9. Other Health Impairment
10. Specific learning disability
11. Speech or language impairment
12. Traumatic brain injury
13. Visual impairment including blindness
Cooperative Learning
teaching strategy where teams of students work together to ensure that each team member learns and understands the material.
Flexible Grouping
teaching strategy that allows for differentiated instruction within the same classroom.
Differentiated Instruction
teaching approach that seeks to tailor the level of instruction, assistance, and requirements according to the students' needs or learning styles.
Engagement Time
actual number of minutes that students are actively involved with learning (taking notes, listening to lectures, solving problems, reading passages).
Engagement time is the time that is most efficient for producing academic achievement.
the concept where new information is best learned when it builds on previously learned information.
ability to "know what you know" (or don't know).
Parental Involvement
one of the strongest influences on academic success.
expectation that one's efforts will succeed in accomplishing their goals.
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
the words and communication skills that are used to navigate social settings.
CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)
what is commonly known as academic language.
ELL instruction (English Language Learners)
the programs designed to teach students who are trying to understand their academic subjects in English while simultaneously learning English.
supportive services that a student may need in order to learn and/or demonstrate that they have learned the curriculum.
actual changes made to the expectations or objectives of the curriculum that meet a student's needs or ability level.
Treatment integrity
the degree to which an intervention is delivered to patients/clients as it was designed to be.
Means-end thinking
awareness of the intermediate steps required to achieve a particular goal.
Consequential thinking
the ability to identify what may happen as a direct result of acting in a particular way or choosing a particular solution
Sensitivity to interpersonal problems
the ability to perceive a problem when it exists and to identify the interpersonal aspects of the confrontation that may emerge
Behavior modification
the method of altering target behaviors through the manipulation of an individual's environment
Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)
behavior modification technique that utilizes operant conditioning principles (behavior is a product of its associated consequences).
Event Recording
a method of data collection that tallies all occurrences of the target behavior.
Duration Recording
a method of data collection that is used to record the length of time that a target behavior is being exhibited.
Interval Recording
collection method is used to estimate the duration or occurrences of a target behavior from a short sample observation.
Time Sampling Recording
collection method that records if behavior occurs or does not occur during a predetermined interval of time.
Continuous Recording
a running record of behavior.
Observer Drift
unintentional change in the definition of the behavior being targeted for observation.
Positive reinforcement
when a desired stimulus is presented to the individual.
Negative Reinforcement
when an aversive (undesired) stimulus is removed. (Nagging is stopped after a child cleans his room).
Primary Reinforcers
naturally reinforcing and do not need to be conditioned or associated to be reinforcing (food, water, sleep, air, sex, and usually attention).
Secondary Reinforcers
need to be conditioned for them to be reinforcing (money, tokens, etc).
Positive Punishment
Unawanted stimulus is given (Spanking)
Negative Punishment
A desired stimulus is taken away (grounded from video games).
The Premack Principle
behavioral theory that an individual will perform low probability behaviors in order to access high probability behaviors.
Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT)
therapeutic technique that targets beliefs and behaviors which cause distress and dysfunction in an individual's life.
Systematic Desensitization
strategy most commonly used to quickly overcome irrational fears, phobias.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
therapy technique that focuses on the rigid beliefs that people use to evaluate their experiences in life. Albert Ellis is the father of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Response to intervention (RTI)
combination of assessment and intervention to identify students at-risk at an early age. Goals of RTI include maximizing student achievement and reducing problem behaviors related to a function of escape or avoidance.
Positive behavioral support plans
changing a student's environment to reduce problem behaviors'.
Antecedent control
involve the manipulation of some aspect of the environment to evoke a desired response or to make a problem behavior less likely to occur.
Behavioral Skills Training
teaching desired behaviors as a replacement for problem behavior.
Crisis prevention techniques
PREPaRE (prevent, reaffirm, evaluate, provide and respond, examine)
Stimulant medications
ADHD; Detroamphetamine (Dexedrine, adderal) methylphenidate (Ritalin), pemoline (cylert)
Antidepressant Medications
Depression; tricyclic antidepressants, amitriptyline (Elavil), Imipramine (Tofranil). Selective Serotini Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Setraline (Zoloft).
Antipsychotic Medications
Controlling psychotic symptoms; Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thiorididazine (Mellaril)
Mood stabilizers
Manic depressive episodes; Lithium (Lithium carbonate), Neurontin
Anti-anxiety Medications
Severe anxiety; benzodiapines, alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), Diazepam (Valium).
Behavior Consultation model:
John R. Bergan and Thomas Kratochwill, the behavior consultation model is a specific four-step consultation model where the consultant (psychologist) shares his/her professional skills with the consultee (teacher), who then utilizes those skills to change the behavior of the client (student).
Goals of Behavioral Consultation
1) To change student behavior, 2) to improve the consultee's ability to solve similar problems in the future, and 3) to promote organizational change (by improving working relationships, helping people see things from a different viewpoint, helping people be more effective at their work, etc.).
consultee-centered consultation
consultant focuses on providing expertise and resources to the consultee, who in turn uses these new skills to help the client.
Goal of Consultee-centered consultation
remediate the deficits in the consultee's professional functioning that are contributing to difficulties in handling the present case, with client improvements seen as secondary.
Client-Centered Case Consultation
a teacher who is experiencing difficulty with a student may seek out a school psychologist who then evaluates the student, arrives at a diagnosis, and offers recommendations concerning how the teacher might best work with the student.
Goal of Client-Centered Case Consultation
develop a plan for dealing with a client's difficulties, with consultee education or skill development seen as secondary.
NASP Domains of Professional Practice - School and Systems Organization, Policy Development,
and Climate:
School psychologists have knowledge of general education, special education, and other
educational and related services. They understand schools and other settings as systems. School
psychologists work with individuals and groups to facilitate policies and practices that create and
maintain safe, supportive, and effective learning environments for children and others.
NASP Blueprint for Training and Practice III:
It is not enough for school psychologists to be proficient at helping students develop competencies. They must also be proficient at helping systems build capacity to foster and teach these competencies. This requires that school psychologists understand how systems work and what factors contribute to the implementation and success of educational innovations.
Best Practices in System-Level Change
To successfully facilitate systemic changes, school psychologists need three areas of expertise: (a) understanding human behavior from a social systems perspective, (b) ability to use collaborative planning and problem solving procedures, and (c) familiarity with principles of organizational change.
NASP Domains of Professional Practice - Home/School/Community Collaboration:
School psychologists have knowledge of family systems, including family strengths and influences on student
development, learning, and behavior, and of methods to involve families in education and service delivery.
School psychologists work effectively with families, educators, and others in the community to promote
and provide comprehensive services to children and families
Eight P Philosophy for School, Family Collaboration
Planned effort
Proactive and persistent communication
Practical suggestions
Program monitorying
Attend to the process for building relations with families
NASP's best practices for school-community collaboration
utilizes the resources, knowledge base, and experience of all key stakeholders. It also allows for all parties to collaboratively develop, implement, and evaluate intervention procedures and outcomes. These partnerships are most beneficial when they are collaborative, empowering, proactive, and flexible.
Best Practices in Transition Services Collaboration
Serve as team members on transition teams starting as soon as the sixth grade.
• Become the school liaison to postsecondary settings, consulting with and assisting
postsecondary personnel as needed for the student.
• Provide self/advocacy and autonomy training and counseling for identified students.
• In order to maximize student preparation and success, focus services on skill development
activities and programs (including academic foundation skills, academic support skills and
mental health skills)
Best Practices for Effective Transition from School to Work
The school psychologist assists in the development of successful transition programs by facilitating.
planning, and coordinating the efforts of the school and the community to help transition students with
disabilities into the work force. They also serve as a professional consultant to the team, providing them with helpful information on adolescent development, disabilities, multiculturalism, learning, and understanding about agents that influence young people.
Best Practices for Effective Transition from School to College
There are no mandatory responsibilities for school psychologists in this area. However, they are
increasingly becoming key members of transition teams due to the increasing number of students with
learning disabilities seeking postsecondary experiences. The school psychologist can assist with critical
transition needs such as disability documentation and qualification, future classroom accommodations,
self-advocacy training, and the education of the student and family on postsecondary life and its
Sympathetic Nervous System
activates the "fight or flight" response to stress.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
works in partnership with the sympathetic nervous system in order to restore body functions after the "fight or
flight" response is activated and the threat has been eliminated.
Control of voluntary movement. Located back edge of the frontal lobes
Bodily sensations. Located front edge of parietal lobes
Ability to see. Occipital Lobe
Ability to hear. Top part of the temporal lobes.
Speech production
Ability to produce speech sounds. Broca’s area
Speech planning and comprehension
Ability to plan and understand speech. Wernicke’s area
Biologically-based motives
Controls of drives to satisfy basic biological needs. Hypothalamus
Limbic functions
Regulation of emotions. Limbic systems.
Left Hemisphere
Speech, movement of the right side of the body, sensation of the right side of the body, vision in the right half of the visual field.
Right hemisphere
Music and art appreciation, drawing ability, movement of the left side of the body, sensation of the left side of the body, vision in the left half of the visual field.
Commonly used in medications for ADHD
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Often used to treat depression and anxiety
Used to stabilize the moods of individuals who struggle with bipolar disorder.
Theory of Cognitive Development (jean Piaget)
Sensory-motor (birth- 2yrs)
Pre-operational (2-7yrs)
Concrete operational (7-11yrs)
Formal operational (11 and up)
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
Stage 1- Obedience and Punishment
Stage 2- Self-interest
Stage 3- Good Boy- Nice Girl
Stage 4- Law & order
Stage 5- Social Contract
Stage 6- Universal Ethical Principle
Bandura's Social Learning Theory (Social Cognitive Theory)
1. Attention
2. Retention
3. Reproduction
4. Motivation
Erikson’s developmental stages
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Role Confusion
Intimacy vs Isolation
Generativity vs Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs Despair
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Needs of love and belonging
Physiological needs
Integrated attachment theory
Explains the bond, or attachment, between caregivers and children, how these early relationships influence the behaviors of children, and how these attachments may influence our adult relationship as well.
theory of learning that states that behaviors are learned from the environment and are independent of the cognitive processes of the mind.
Classical Conditioning
basic form of learning that involves pairing a stimulus with a specific response. Pavlov's theory explains how a response can be paired to an unrelated stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
that behavior is learned as a result of its consequences.
behavior that causes an increase in the probability of that response occurring in the future.
Fixed Ratio
to applying the reinforcement after a specific number of behaviors.
Fixed Interval
Applying the reinforcer after a specific amount of time is referred to as a fixed interval schedule.
Variable Ratio
applying a reinforcer after a variable number of responses.
Variable Interval
Reinforcing someone after a variable amount of time is the final schedule.
the concept that the conscious mind is instrumental to learning.
theory that learning occurs as an interaction between current know ledge and new experiences.
Zone of Proximal Development
the description for the distance between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance or guidance from a teacher.
Intrinsic motivation
doing activities that an individual finds to be satisfying, enjoyable. or inherently reinforcing.
Extrinsic motivation
reinforcers that are external to the individual.
belief in one's ability to effect change in their environment.
CHC Theory
global theory of intelligence that is based on the concept that all workings and abilities of the brain contribute to an overall General Intelligence (g).
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Visual-spatial Intelligence
• Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
• Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
• Logical-mathematical Intelligence
• Interpersonal Intelligence
• Intrapersonal Intelligence
• Musical Intelligence
• Naturalistic Intelligence
Behaviorism BF Skinner
that operant conditioning, or the consequences of using words, teaches the behavior of using language to communicate.
Language Acquisition Device
the label for a theoretical specialized part of the brain whose sale function is to develop language.
Constructivism (jean Piaget)
language acquisition as the interaction between previous knowledge and the environment in the process of constructing the meaning of words.
Social Constructivism (Lev Vygotsky)
language and thought as two similar but separate processes.
tests compare the examinee's scores to a standardization sample of same aged peers.
tests do not compare scores to the standardization sample.
ability of a test to reproduce the same scores.
Inter-rater reliability
the amount of consistency between different individuals who are administering and/or scoring the test.
Test-retest reliability
the amount of consistency over time.
Alternate-forms reliability
the consistency of scores between different forms of a test.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (P.A.R.C.) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Children with Mental Retardation Must be Provided FAPE
Mills v. Board of Education of District of Columbia (1972)
Children with All Disabilities Must be Provided FAPE, Regardless of Cost
Hobson v. Hansen (1967, 1969)
Banned Placement by Aptitude Testing due to Discriminatory Norming Samples
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
Requires Children be Assessed in theirs Primary Language
Guadalupe Organization, Inc. v. Tempe Elementary School District (1972)
Requires a Multifaceted Evaluation in Primary Language
Larry P. v. Riles (1972, 1979, 1984)
Banned IQ Tests for African American Students
Parents in Action in Special Education (P.A.S.E.) v. Hannon (1980)
IQ Tests for African Americans Not likely Discriminatory
Debra P. v. Turlington (1984)
High School Exit Exams and Discrimination against African Americans
Pesce v. J. Sterling Morton High School (1988)
Reporting Suspected Child Abuse Always Trumps Confidentiality
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley (1982)
IDEA Ensures a Beneficial Education, not the Best Possible Education
Tarasoff v. The Regents of the University of California (1974, 1976)
Duty to Warn / Duty to Protect
Tatro v. Irving Independent School District (1984)
The Scope of Required Related Services
Wilhelm Wundt
known as the founder of modern psychology
Arnold Gessell
First person in the United States to officially hold the title of school psychologist.
Functional Behavior assessment
Comprehensive and individualized strategy to identify the purpose or function of a students's problem behaviors.
Curriculum based measurement
Specific forms of criterion referenced assessments in which curriculum goals and objectives serve as the criteria for assessment items.
System of sounds that a language uses.
System of sounds that a language uses.
Basic unit of a language's sound and phonetic system.
System of sounds that a language uses.
Basic unit of a language's sound and phonetic system.
Smallest units meaning, such as prefix, suffix, or root word.
System of sounds that a language uses.
Basic unit of a language's sound and phonetic system.
Smallest units meaning, such as prefix, suffix, or root word.
Word meanings and combinations such as in phrases, clauses and sentences
System of sounds that a language uses.
Basic unit of a language's sound and phonetic system.
Smallest units meaning, such as prefix, suffix, or root word.
Word meanings and combinations such as in phrases, clauses and sentences
Prescribes how words may combine into phrases, clauses, and sentences
System of sounds that a language uses.
Basic unit of a language's sound and phonetic system.
Smallest units meaning, such as prefix, suffix, or root word.
Word meanings and combinations such as in phrases, clauses and sentences
Prescribes how words may combine into phrases, clauses, and sentences
A set of rules that specify appropriate language for particular social contexts.
Broca's area
Located in the frontal portion of the left hemisphere. This part of the brain supports grammatical processing and expressive language production.
Broca's area
Located in the frontal portion of the left hemisphere. This part of the brain supports grammatical processing and expressive language production.
Wernicke's area
Medial temporal lobe. This section of the brain supports word meaning comprehension and receptive language.
Manifestation determination
Determine whether or not the students behavior warrants 10 day suspension or if expulsion was a result of disability
Education for all handicapped children act
1st special Ed law in us. Referred as pl 94-142
Now referred to as IDEA
IDEA 2004
13 qualifying disabilities.
Mandates FAPE.
Students in SPED receive LRE
states must not require use of discrepancy model
IDEA 2004
13 qualifying disabilities.
Mandates FAPE.
Students in SPED receive LRE
states must not require use of discrepancy model
No child left behind 2001
Close achievement gap.
Targets high risk schools
Formal assessments for grades 3-8.
Ideaia 204
Assessed with nondiscriminatory assessment and decisions must be made by multidisciplinary team with parent.
RTI to be used.
Defines parental safeguards and rights presented.
FERPA 1974
Schools must adhere to strict student record keeping procedures.
Record keeping laws are designed to protect confidentiality and allow parents to access to educational records.
Zero reject principle
Established child find, requires states to locate and identify children with disabilities and provide them with full educational opportunity
Special education procedural safeguards
Complaints- filed within 2 yrs of problem or dispute.
Resolution meetings- within 15 days of receiving complaint.
Due process hearings- third party hearing officer for sped disputes.
Consent- parental consent must be obtained before an evaluation.
Notice- written notice must be given to parents for initiation or change of students identification, evaluation, placement, change of service.
Section 504
Vivian rights law and guarantees access to a school building and to a schools curriculum.
Gifted education
Not federally funded.
Lau vs Nichols
Schools must provide accommodations for ESL students.
Child find law
Children 0-3 years old based on pl 94-457 education of the handicapped act. Authorized early intervention for toddlers and families.
Child find law
Children 0-3 years old based on pl 94-457 education of the handicapped act. Authorized early intervention for toddlers and families.
Perkins act
Rights to transition special educational students into vocational programs.