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6 Cards in this Set

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Iraq before Saddam

Ottoman Empire:


- Part of Ottoman Empire


- Ottoman Empire part of losing Alliance- reparations, Treaty of Sevrés


British control of Iraq:


- Monarchy (Kind Faizel) implemented


- King Faizel II takes control (1932)


- Killed in a coup (1958)


Baath Party:


- 1963- Arab Revolutionist party (Baath Party) take control from military

Ottoman Empire


British control of Iraq


Baath Party

Ba'ath Party

Beliefs:


- Strong Arab culture and unity


- Socialism, Arab nationalism


(Arab nations joining)


Leaders:


- Abdul Salam Arif (1963-1966)


- Ahmad Hasan Al-Bakr (1968-1979)


- Saddam Hussein (1979-2006)

Strong Power Base


(Vice- President to Al-Bakr)

- Assured control over key positions in Ba'ath party


- Family/Friends placed in key roles (important source of power- family)


- Army had a large defence budget

No Party Opposition & Nationalised Oil

- Members of important clubs etc decided if you were a member of party


- Saddam oversaw nationalisation of oil (1972): Grew economy


1973:


- Iraq joined all producing countries in OPEC


- OPEC: Organisation that coordinates petroleum policy


- OPEC reduced production, stopped exporting oil to Western world (punishment for helping Israel in Yim-Kippur war)


- Shortage of oil increased prices (oil cost 400% more)

Improved Infrastructure

- Roads, schools, hospitals, water and power infrastructure improved


- Rural peasant rates declined- moved to cities


- Saddam had new backing from businessmen


- Education:


- Free universal education


- "National campaign for the Eradication of Illiteracy"


- Health:


- Large investments in healthcare


- Iraq had one of the best healthcare systems in Middle East


- Saddam received UNESCO award

Terror & Repression

Teaching People:


- Regularly convinced people to believe his beliefs


-Taught kids: Stand in the sun with a gun, without flinching (fight militarily)


Military:


- People's Army responsible for internal security- Belonged to military side of Ba'ath party (military can't oppose)


- Saddam controlled secret services- many recruits were individuals supporters Opposition:


- People against party - Arrested by Gen. intelligence/ Mukhbarat


- Tortured, raped, assassinated


- Enemies of state removed



Teaching people


Military


Opposition