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67 Cards in this Set

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Which stain is the most appropriate method for demonstrating acid-fast organisms that are difficult to stain by other methods: Ziehl-Neelsen, Gridley, Kinyoun, Wade

Wade's modification of File's new fuchsin formaldehyde procedure can be used for acid-fast bacilli that are difficult to stain with more conventional acid-fast bacilli procedures.

In acid-fast staining procedures, the substance used to enhance carbol-fuchsin staining and dissolve fuchsin dye is:

HCL, H2O, phenol, methylene blue


in acid fast staining, drying the section after carbol-fuchsin staining should be avoided because it may: decolorize acid-fast organisms, inihibit counterstaining, prevent decolorization, result in acid fast organisms appearing beaded

result in decolorization of acid fast organisms and render them completely unstained.

the most commonly used dye for staining Mycobacterium TB is: basic fuchsin and phenol, acid fuchsin and formalin, acid fuchsin and carbolic acid, new fuchsin and HCL

Basic fuchsin and phenol, both of which are in Kinyoun and Ziehl-Neelsen and are the commonly used stains for TB

when using the Fite procedure for staining Mycobacterium leprae, acid fast organisms are stained: blue to purple, orange to red, red to violet, greeen to yellow

Red to violet. The leprosy bacillus is very susceptible to decolorization in acid alcohol.. Mod to Fite technique using formalin will make cells resistant to decolorization, resulting in violet.. other mods to Fite use peanut oil and xylene for coating organisms while depar, results in red bacilli.

The property of "acid-fastness' appears to be related to the presence of this substance in the walls of the organisms"

lipid, protein, amyloid, iron..


addition of thymol crystals to staining solutions used for demonstrating microorganisms serves to: maintain a neutral pH, facilitate greater reagent penetration, inhibit mold growth, adere tissue sections to microscope slides

Thymol is added to inihibit the growth of mold which might contaminate tissue sections.

spirochetes are filamentous bacteria that are known to be:

argentophilic, argyrophilic, polychromatic, metachromatic?

argyrophilic, meaning that spicrochetes have an affinity for silver nitrate, but require a separate agent (developer) to recude adsorbed silver to a visible metallic end product.

THe PAS for fungi works on the underlying principle of the:

argyrophilic nature of fungi,

agentophilic nature of fungi,

oxidation of mucopolysaccharides within fungal walls, affinity of ketone groups for Schiff's reagent.

Based on the oxidation of mucoplysaccharides within the funal cell wall from the hydroxyl stage to the aldehyde stage. the aldehydes then combine with or have a affinity for Schiff reagent.

the most consistently reliable technique for demonstrating fungi in tissues is the:

PAS, Gridley method for fungi, GMS, Ziehl-Neelsen


recommended fixative for tissue containing spirochetes is:

neutral formalin, Bouin's, Zenker's, Helly's..

10% NBf. Mercurial fixatives such as Zenker's and Helly's are no recommended for spirochetes

given the warthin-starry technique, the spirochetes appear yellow.. the most likely cause of this problem is:

overdeveloping, underdeveloping, use of impure reagents, improper pH..

Underdeveloped: most likely the tissues did not stay long enough in the developer.. sections should be left in the developer until spirochetes are black..

in the Hotchkiss-McManuse PAS, polysaccharides present in funal walls are oxidized to aldehydes by:

1% periodic acid, 0.5% periodic acid, 5% chromic acid, 4% chromic acid.

1% periodic acid is correct for Hotchkiss-McManus method. 0.5% is correct if for McManus PAS..

in paraffin sections, Hep B surface antigen may be demonstrated with:

Schleifstein and Paron methods, Gridley and orcein methods, orcein and aldehyde fuchsin methods, Schleifstein and aldehyde fuchsin methods.

Hepatitis B surface antigen may be stained in paraffin sections using the orcein method and aldehyde fuchsin method.

Hep B "or C" =orcein..

or see all

an organism that is resistant to decolorization after staining with a basic aniline dye followed by an iodine mordant is referred to as: acid fast, argentaffin, gram positive, argyophilic

Gram positive organism is one that when stained with a basic aniline dye followed by a iodine mordant, is reisitant to subsequent decolorization. Gram neg organisms will NOT retain primary stain and are subsequently colored with safarin or basich fuchsin counterstains.

select the microorganism that will not stain with carbol-fuchsin solution:

mycobacterium leprae, nocardia, treponema pallidum, Koch's bacillus

Treponema pallidum requires silver impregnation techniques in histopathologic staining. All others mentioned will stain with carbol-fuchsin.

how come it won't stain with carbol-fuchsin? dude, don't trip..

filaments of Nocardia species may be differentiated from those of Actinomyces with the modified: Dieterle method, PAS, Steiner technique, Fire or Ziehl-Neelsen procedures

Fite or Ziehl-Neelsen procedures because Nocardia is a filamentous bacillus that is acid-fast..

filaments of Nocardia species may be differentiated from those of Actinomyces with the modified: Dieterle method, PAS, Steiner technique, Fire or Ziehl-Neelsen procedures

Fite or Ziehl-Neelsen procedures because Nocardia is a filamentous bacillus that is acid-fast..

amebas can be demonstrated with H&E stain and the: GMS, PAS, Kinyou acid-fast procedure, Vassar-Culling procedure?

Amebas are protozoa that can be demonstrated with the PAS because of the high glycogen content in their cytoplasm..

Poor Ameba Stain

What is the purpose of iodine in Gram procedures for staining bacteria: make cell wall permeable, form a dye lake with primary crystal violet stain, decolorize crystal violet, inactivate bacteria

to form a dye lake as Iodine is a mordant applied after primary staining with crystal violet. the dye lake with crystal violet prevents decolorization of the gram positive organisms.

The Bacterium Legionella pneumophilia can be demonstrated using this method: Schleifstein, Pinkerton, May-Grunwald, modified Steiner?

modified steiner. Certain silver impregnation techniques for spirochetes, including the modified steiner and the Dieterle methods are best to demonstrate Legionella penumophillia, the cause of Leionnaire's disease.

legion of honor.. piano.. steinway..

dont eat too much at the legion.. dieterle

When using warthin-starry for spirochetes, nuclei, melanin, and other pigments may stain and interfere with spirochete ID.. what mod can you do to the stain to prevent this?

prolonged development and a lower pH, prolonged development and a higher pH, shorter development and a lower pH, shorter development and a higher pH

Prolonged development and a lower pH may aid in distinguishing spirochetes from other structures.

Rickettsias are obligate, intracellular parasites that possess both dna and rna, and can be stained with:

sliver impregnation methods, Giemsa, Gridley, acid-fast

Rickettsias can be stained with the Giemsa stain.. also with Wright's and Pinkerton's staining method

Rickettsias are obligate, intracellular parasites that possess both dna and rna, and can be stained with:

sliver impregnation methods, Giemsa, Gridley, acid-fast

Rickettsias can be stained with the Giemsa stain.. also with Wright's and Pinkerton's staining method

Microscopic eval of a Brown and Brenn gram stain shows the presence of gram positive organisms, but no gram negative.. cause is

too little time in iodine solution, overdifferentiation in Gallego solution, overdifferentiation in picric acid-acetone solution, too little time in crystal violet solution

over differentiation in picric acid-acetone solution.

in Brown-Hopps stain for bacteria, one of the differentiators is

acid alchohol, 95% ethanol, Gallego solution, 70% ethanol

gallego solution.

inclusion bodies characteristic of rabies infection can be demonstrated with H&E and with: gridley stain and PAS, Gram and Grocott, Wheatley and Parson's, Parson's and Schleifstein procedures.

Parson and Schleifstein procedures can detect Negri bodies related to Rabies.

The primary dye used in a rapid, non-silver staining procedure to demonstrate cysts of Pneumocyctis carinii is: cresyl echt violett, basic fuchsin, Schiff's reagent, carbol-fuchsin.

Cresyl echt violett is the primary dye used in a rapid staining procedure..

Lung sections showing granulomatuous inflammation on H&E stained sections are commonly stained with at least two techniques to deonstrate the presence of: fungi or acid-fast organisms, fibrosis or acid fast organisms, fungi or muscle, fungi or fibrosis

fungi or acid-fast organisms: a variety of fungi as well as acid fast organisms induce granulomatous inflammation in ling and other tissues. Tissue sections showing granulomas on H&E are often stained for acid fast organisms and fungi to demonstrate the specific causative agent..

diseases such as malaria and Leishmaniasis are caused by which of the following microorganisms: bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi

protozoa: both malaria and leishmaniasis are caused by organisms that beong to the phylum "protozoa"

for light microscopic evaluation of fungi, it is necessary to use specials stains because:

fungi can only be seen using silver impregnation, fungi are removed in the routine staining process, some fungi do not stain with H&E, no fungi stain with H&E

Some fungi do not stain with H&E.

Rickettsias are related to which of the following classifications of microorganisms: fungi, viruses, bacteria, protozoa

bacteria: Rickettsias occur singly in chains or clusters as intracellular parasites detectable on stained sections.

PAS of section containing fungi reveals overstaining of the entire section, making ID of fungal elements difficult. likely cause is use of: periodic acid oxidizer, chromic acid oxidizer, incorrect reducing agent, incorrect counterstain

Periodic acid oxidizer: using chromic acid rather than periodic acid as the oxidizer for PAS-stained sections with fungi seems to eliminate staining of newly formed aldehyde groups. Chromic acid oxidizes theses newly-formed groups past the aldehyde stage to the carboxylic acid stae where they do not combine with the Schiffs reagent.

Granuloma inguinale, a venereal disease, can generally be diagnosed by using this special procedure: Ziehl-Neelsen, Steiner, GMS, Gridley

Steiner: Donovan bodies, the microorganism associated with granuloma inguinale, can be demonstrated using the Steiner procedure.

Using the Truant's auramine-rhodamine procedure, mycobacteria stain: green, blue, yellow, black


aura = halo =

Acid alcohol decolorizers are generally recommended over aqueous ones for use with "acid fast" procedures because: alchoholic solutions penetrate more rapidly, alcoholic solutions penetrate more slowly, aqueous solutions are less stable, alcoholic solutions allow more uniform decolorization.

Alcoholic solutions allow more uniform decolorization..

insoluble compounds that resist decolorization with either-acetone are noted on microscopic evaluation of a control section stained with Brown-Hopps Gram stain.. The presence of these compounds is probably due to:

inadequate fixation, inadequate dehydration, omission of mordant during staining, sections being allowed to dry before mounting

sections being allowed to dry before mounting: a precaution to obeserve while staining with a modified Gram method is to keep sections wet during the staining sequence. Frequently when sections are allowed to dry, insoluble compounds will form that are resistant to decolorization.

When the mucoid capsule of this fungus is intact, Mayer's mucicarmine may be used in it's differential diagnosis: blastomyces, histoplasma, cryptococcus, prototheca


the most likely cause of inadequate staining using the Wright's preparation is: improper pH of the solution, smears or sections are too thin, that the staining solution is not ripened, that staining was done at room temperature.

improper pH of the solution. the pH must be kept between 6.0 and 6.5 for good results.

a type of microbiological stain that can also be used to differentiate types of granulocytes is the: gram, acid-fast, Romanowsky, silver impregnation?

Romanwosky (aka giemsa or wright's stain)

use of heat and prolonged staining with Ziehl-Neelsen carbol fuchsin may be used to demonstrate the acid-fast characteristics of certain : proteins, mucins, spematozoa, lipfuschins

lipofuscins (ceroids) can be demonstrated when heat and longer staining using Ziehl-Neelsen.

Borrelia burgdorferi organisms are demonstrated well with this procedure: File, Gridley, Steiner, aurmine

Steiner: Borrelia burgdorferi is the organism found in Lyme disease infected tissues. it is a filamentous bacterium and is best demonstrated with silver impregnation procedures.

Giardia lambia, a protozoan sometimes found in the small intestine, can be demonstrated with H&E staining and the :Giemsa, GMS, Brown and Brenn, Kinyoun's?

Giemsa: the double nuclei are well stained with Giemsa.

sounds like giardia.. kind of...

a reliable stain for demonstrating ground-glass granules found in liver hepatocyts infected with HBsAg is: Ziehl-Neelsen, Brown and Brenn, aldehyde fuchsin, H&E?

aldehyde fuchsin: in contrast to staining with routine H&E, these granules are more distinct when they are stained with aldehyde fuchsin and orcein procedures.

When using Wade's mod of File's new fuchsin formadehyde procedure, in order to protect the leprosy organism from acid-fast compenent extraction, the section may be deparaffinized in: xylene and peanut oil, xylene and dioxane, xylene and alcohol, xylene and acetone.

xylene and peanut oil..

a organism classified with bacteria, possessing both dna and rna, and resembling ricksettsia in size and staining characteristic is: H pylori, T pallidum, Leptospira sp, chlamydia?

The genus Chlamydia is classifid with bacteria, reproduces with binary fission, and resembles ricksettsia in size and staining characteristics.

A brown and Brenn stain shows gram neg organisms but no gram pos.. most likely cause is: gram pos cut away, section over decolorized after crystal violet, iodine mordant lost it's effectiveness, section was stained too long in basic fucksin

the section was over-decolorized after crystal violet.

A brown and Brenn stain shows gram neg organisms but no gram pos.. most likely cause is: gram pos cut away, section over decolorized after crystal violet, iodine mordant lost it's effectiveness, section was stained too long in basic fucksin

the section was over-decolorized after crystal violet.

organisms found on gastric mucosa that are the presumptive cause of gastritis, have a "S" configuration and are stained with silver impregnation are most likely: Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallicum, Leptospria interrogams, Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori are present in stomach mucosa of infected persons. They are slightly spiral or "s" shaped when stained with Steiner or other such silver procedures.

in a paraffin section toxoplasmosis is characterized by intact cysts and or pseudocysts containing parasites are are usually demonstrated with this procedure: H&E, rhodamine, Fontana-Masson, Ziehl-Neelsen

Intact cysts containing parasites of toxoplasmosis are easily seen by H&E and appear as 1-6 micrometer round to oval bodies with basophilic nuclei.

conjunctival scraping rom an infant susected of having Chlamydia conjunctivitis are submitted to the lab for special staining. preferred method for shwoing eementary bodies of chlamydia sp is: Modified Macchiavello, H&E, Papanicolaou procedure, methylene blue

of the listed stains, elementary bodies of chlamydia would most easily be visualized by staining with a modified Macchiavello stain.

After completing a Warthin-Starry technique, a positive control does not show spirochetes, most likely reason is: poor fixation, contaminated glassware, incorrectly prepared reducing solution, incorrectly selected mordant

Spirochetes are argyrophilic in nature and require the use of a separate reducing agent.

Microcscopic inspection of a Lendrum's phloxine-tartrazine postive control slide for inclusion bodies are negative.. most liekely cause is: insufficient tartrazine differentiation, overstaining with picric acid, insufficient dehydration, overexposure in acid alcohol.

in this procedure, phloxine, the primary stain, stains all components red.. The section must be differentiated adequately with tartrazine so that only the inclusions will have red remaining in them.

a fungus disease characterized by pleomorphic yeast cells, narrow-based budding and carminophilia is: leishmaniasis, cryptocoocosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis

cryptococcosis. cryptococcus neoformans organisms vary greatly in size and shape, and the mucinous, encapsulated cryptococci are readily visible when stained with mucicarmine.

From this list, a fungus that may have a mixture of budding yeast cells and pseudohyphal elements in infected tissue is: aspergillus, Candida, histoplasma, cryptococcus

Candida may be present in tissue as a mixture of these fungal elements.

while examining a GMS stained section, it's noted that elastin, crenated cells, andmucin have stained black, confusing interpretation. the cause is most likely : overexposure to hot silver nitrate, underexposure to gold chloride, underexposure to sodium thiosulfate, performing the procedure in a microwave oven

overexposure to hot silver nitrate.

a ziehl-neelsen procedure is done on a lung granuloma suspected of containing TB organisms, but no AF bacilli are demonstrated. to be sure that none of these organisms are present, it would be wise if we: GMS, Truant's auramine-rhodamine, Gram stain, Gridley procedure?

Truant's auramine-rhodamine.. Nonviable acid-fast bacilli can be demonstrated ith the Truant's procedure, but are not generally seen following staining with the Ziehl-Neelsen procedure.

One of the most widespread and prevalent of the mycotic diseases in man is: coccidioidomycosis, protothecosis, candidiasis, rhinosporidiosis

Candidiasis: most humans acquire this fungus at birth and ordinarily lives in balance with other micoroorganisms.

the most commonly used phenolic compound for reducing adsorbed sliver to a visible metallic state in argyrophil procedures, such as the warthin-Starry is: Sodium thiosulfate, uranly nitrate, hydroquinone, sodium bisulfate.

Hydroquinone is a phenolic compound that becomes oxidized to a quinone, as silver is reduced to a metallic state

a gram stain has been done on a reactive, inflammatory lymph node, and the background structures are staining intense red, making ID of gram neg organisms very difficult. cause of this is: overstating with basic fuchsin, overstating with crystal violet, insufficient differentation with picric acid-acetone, insufficient differentiation with acetone and alcohol

insufficient differentiation with picric acid-aceton. The Gram-twort procedure, though time-consuming, is preferred by some because gram-neg organisms are more easily detected when the green counterstain is used.

Listeria monocytogenes, the cause of rare form of meningitis , can best be demonstrated in paraffin tissue section with this histopathologic stain procedure: H&E, Ziehl neelsen, GMS, Gram or steiner

Gram or steiner: Listeria, a bacterium, can be demonstrated with either stain.

These viral inclusion bodies can generally be detected in paraffin section by staining with H&E: Coccidioides immitis, cytomegalovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Yersinia pestis


a useful stain to facilitate Id of the ova of Schistosoma sp is: CMS, Pas, Gram, Truant's

PAS: Although refractile walls of these ova are stained with eosin, the PAS stains them brilliantly and is a good stain for rapid detection

A stain mixture of basic thiazin dyes and eosin, sometimes used for staining gram neg organisms is: sirus supra blue, chromtrope 2R, nuclear fast red, Giemsa

Giemsa is a mixture of basic thiazin dyes that stain gram neg bacteria blue. As is always the case with this stain, adequate demonstration of the desired compnent depends on proper differentiation.

a variation of the chromic acid-sciff stain that demonstrates cell walls of fungi is sometimes called: bauer's reaction, Levaditi's reaction, Baker's reaction, Schmorl's reaction

Gridley produced a variation of the Bauer reaction which is a typical oxidation-schiff reaction used to demonstrate fungi.

a preferred staining procedure for demonstrating intracytoplasmic DNA-type viral inclusions in tissue is: phloxine-methylene blue, Feulgen, PTAH, Warthin-Starry

Feulgen: Viral inclusions can be demonstrated by virtue of the particular nuceic acid which the viruses contain, either DNA or RNA. The Feulgen technique can be used to demonstrate the inclusions of DNA type viruses. The Unna-Pappenheim technique better demonstrates inclusions of RNA-type viruses.

As an adjunct to light microscopy, a specific mycotic infection may be confirmed by using: EM, fluorescent antibody, MacCallum-Goodpasture, Sevier-Munger

Fluorescent antibody: Although the pathologist may be relatively certain of the idenity of a fungus in tissue stained with CMS, it is advantageous to confirm suspicions with the FA technique which is specific for that particular fungus.