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17 Cards in this Set

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What is culture? Give example

A way of life of a particular society using a system of behaviour and beliefs


E.g Hamar Tribe in Ethiopia


Rich in ceremony + ritual. To reach adulthood, makes must leap on backs of cattles and run across them. Then women are whipped to show their devotion

What are norms? Give example

Expected/accepted behaviour based on values of a culture


E.g norm to wear clothes in public based on value of modesty

What are values? Give example

Beliefs + ideas that society sees as important


E.g in UK we value life, success, honesty, loyalty

What is deviance?

Behaviour that goes against the norms

What is cultural diversity and how can it be seen?

Refers to variety or difference in societies


Can be seen both between cultures (intercultural diversity) and within cultures (intracultural diversity)

What are subcultures? Give example

A culture within a culture. A smaller group if people who share distinctive norms + values


E.g within UK there are subcultured based on age -youth subcultures like punks/emos or fashion, politics etc

What is cultural hybridity?

The merging of two or more cultures to make a new one

What is high culture?

Products/activities that are seen as high status e.g horse races


superior to other forms of culture


• audience seen as educated and having a 'great taste'


• funding for high culture comes from low culture

What is popular culture?

• products/activities that are enjoyed by the majority of a population e.g watching TV, going cinema


• influences people by use of media


• gives people sense of belonging


• some argue there are still some shallow activities that are inferior to high culture


• some feel that popular culture is manufactured + fake + a form of brainwashing or dumbing down of the masses

What is the distinction between pop and high culture?

Its gradually breaking down- media/technology gives everyone access to activities previously seen as high culture e.g turning Shakespeare plays into movies

What is consumer culture?

• result of increasing availability of consumption of goods


• excessive consumption is regarded as acceptable/normal


shopping (a leisure pursuit) where individuals consume branded goods in a blatant attempt to construct an identity and gain status


encouraged + reinforced by media with advertising + celebs

What is global culture?

•refers to growing trend of cultural products/activities becoming universal e.g food/films identical across many countries


•key feature in globalisation- process by which world becomes more interconnected


McLuhan "the world is becoming a smaller place" we now live in a global village driven by industry, travel, globally accessible media + internet

What is socialisation?

The process of learning the norms and values of a society

Example of nature from nature nurture debate

Isabel the 'chicken girl'


• found when she was 10 in Portugal


•since birth she was left in a chicken coop with hens while her mother worked


•she couldn't speak, wasn't toilet trained and expressed emotion by beating her arms and drumming her feet


•she was physically malformed due to malnutrition

Example of nurture from nature nurture debate

Bruce Reimer Experiment


•at 7 months old Bruce's penis was destroyed


Dr Money suggested that nurture is more important and said they could raise him as a girl


•they changed his name to Brenda and dressed him as a girl


•experiment seemed to have worked but at age 13 Brenda was unhappy and attempted suicide


•The Reimers told him and he decided to live as a male and says he knew something wasn't right

What is primary socialisation?

First and most important stage of learning


•takes place within family


•family teaches basic norms and values


•children learn from parents through imitation (role models)


•learn what is acceptable through trial + error. Parents will then apply +/- sanctions (form of social control)


•family builds our identity

What is secondary socialisation?

•Second stage of learning when individual attends school, makes friends etc